Saturday, August 31, 2019
Conversation is the most basic form of communication and human beings rely on conversation to exchange information and maintain social relationships (Gardner 1994: 97). Human interactions rely on conversation for simple chatting as well as work related tasks, political discussions and educational decisions (Gardner 1994: 98). Conversation is at the heart of the human ability to interact with one another in everyday life. Communicative events typically involve definable boundaries and a joint effort at interaction (Orr 2008: 317). A communicative event that occurs within its social boundaries becomes an engagement between two people (Orr 2008: 317). In other words, a communicative event between two friends results in an engagement that has meaning to both parties involved. In contrast, a communicative event that is between two strangers, such as a shopper and salesperson, cannot be considered an engagement because when the encounter is over it holds no meaning to those involved (Orr 2008: 317). Further, a communicative event is only successful when both parties involved contribute to the process of understanding as the conversation takes place (Aune, Levine, Park, Asada, & Banas 2005: 358). In a communicative event between friends, each friend is responsible for contributing something to the conversation that will make the interaction meaningful for both people. When both friends are not contributing to the communicative event equally, then the encounter fails to have meaning and makes the person who is contributing view his or her friend negatively (Aune, et al 2005: 358). An analysis of a communicative event that occurred between two friends in Saudi Arabia is offered. This analysis includes a discussion of the eleven components that Saville-Troike identifies. The Communicative Event Cultural analysis is an important part of discussing linguistics and communication. However, linguistics is not typically associated with a cultural analysis even though the conversation styles and traditions of different cultures are an essential component to communicative events (Wierzbicka 1997: 1). In fact, there is a very close link between culture and the lexicon of the language spoken as part of that culture. This is why many cultures rely on special words for important aspects of their culture such as food (Wierzbicka 1997: 1). Additionally, many cultures, such as the Arabic culture, rely on special greetings and phrases as part of their communicative events. These special greetings and phrases add depth to the communicative events and allow them to have meaning to the people involved. The conversation analyzed for this paper occurred between two friends and included a special greeting as well as common phrases used in Saudi Arabian culture. These components of the communicative event allowed the interaction to mean something to the two friends and resulted in positive feelings from both. The definition of a communicative event and a consideration to cultural differences is particularly useful for language teachers because it gives them insight into the importance of specific aspects of communicative events that differ across cultural boundaries. Language teachers are most successful when they are able to incorporate aspects of native language into new language acquisition. Changing the way that language teachers instruct is a constant part of the job of language teachers (Jacobs & Farrell 2003: 5). At the same time, it is important that a language teacher give students the tools necessary for learner autonomy, understanding the social nature of learning, the ability for curricular integration, a focus on meaning, attention to diversity, thinking skills, assessment and utilizing the teacher as a co learner (Jacobs & Farrell 2003: 5). These eight skills are essential for language teachers to implement in order to allow students to rely on their native language while also learning a new language. Further, sensitivity to cultural differences in language style will allow the language teacher to provide students with authentic opportunities to engage in meaningful communicative events. At the same time, language teachers cannot choose to only implement one or two of these components. They are all necessary components to successful language instruction. Classroom language instruction is an important part of the job of a language teacher. However, the type of language instruction has an impact on how well students acquire language skills (Spada 1987: 137). A study of three separate language classrooms over a period of sixty observation hours shows that students are sensitive to the communicative orientation of new language acquisition (Spada 1987: 137). The reason behind this observation is the different communicative styles utilized by different cultures. For example, the special greeting and phrases used the in conversation to be analyzed here differ from the style of communication in other cultures. Therefore, sensitivity to different communicative styles may result in better instruction and higher levels of learning. The ability to improve in the speaking, listening and discourse areas of language learning seem to be related to classroom instruction style (Spada 1987: 137). When a language teacher begins to work with a specific location, the first step is to study the community that will make up the instructional population. This is important so the language teacher is able to gather important information about the social organization and important aspects of the culture in order to relate that information to the culture (Saville-Troike 1989: 107). At the same time, it is important for language teachers to discover the way that native speakers structure their communicative events in order to gain insight into the importance of different communication components important to that specific culture (Saville-Troike 1989: 107). Ultimately, the goal of a language teacher would be to make many careful and thorough observations of native speakers engaging in a variety of different communicative events so a complete understanding of communication can be gathered. Once this job is completed the language teacher should be able to model communicative events after the communicative events of native speakers (Saville-Troike 1989: 107). To this end, Saville-Troike introduces eleven components that will each be commented on as they relate to the communicative example used in this paper: type of event, topic, purpose or function, setting, key, participants, message form, message content, act sequence, rules for interaction and norms for interaction (1989: 138). Type of Event, Topic, Purpose and Setting The type of event, topic, purpose and setting make up the scene of the communicative event (Saville-Troike 1989: 139). The type of event analyzed is an informal conversation between two university friends who have not seen or spoken to one another for a week. The topic of the conversation is the time that has gone by without speaking or seeing one another and includes a discussion about why so much time has passed as well as plans to spend time together in the near future. The purpose of the communicative event is time for the friends to catch up with one another and make plans to engage in further conversation. Finally, the setting for the communicative event is Abha City in the Southern Province of Saudi Arabia. These four components of this specific communicative event make up the whole scene. While only the setting can be directly observed, the type of event, the topic and the purpose of this communicative event are equally as important for gathering information about the cultural aspects of Arabic linguistics and conversation style (Saville-Troike 1989: 139). Further cultural information can be obtained by observing the traditions and customs of a specific culture with regards to communication. This communicative event occurred between two friends and included the special greeting, Ã¢â¬Å"Peace be upon youÃ¢â¬ and Ã¢â¬Å"peace be upon you too. Ã¢â¬ This greeting is an essential aspect of Arabic communicative events and means that there is goodwill among the two friends. If this greeting would have been omitted from the conversation it would indicate that the friends were angry with one another. When analyzing components of a communicative event that are not directly visible it is important to be watching for important information regarding the sacred nature of communication and what that looks like for different cultures (Saville-Troike 1989: 141). For example, in this communicative event between two friends, an observer cannot see what the type of event or what the purpose of the event is. However, listening to the conversation and watching for customs and traditions provides valuable insight into the nature of cultural differences and what is important (Saville-Troike 1989: 141). These observations will allow an observer to discover what is sacred to a culture with regards to communication as well as what types of beliefs are important to them. Further, an observer can learn what behaviors are unacceptable, what the purpose of particular behaviors are and see external signs of participation in ritual parts of a communicative event (Saville-Troike 1989: 141). Key The key of a communicative event is introduced in order to provide the tone, manner or spirit of the encounter (Saville-Troike 1989: 141). This can take the form of teasing versus seriously discussing something, being sincere versus sarcastic, being friendly versus hostile or being sympathetic versus threatening (Saville-Troike 1989: 141). The type of key that is present in a communicate event relies on the type of relationship the people involved in conversation have. In this case, the communicative event was informal, but respectful and was a sincere and friendly exchange between two friends. However, if the conversation took a sarcastic key, the sarcasm would have overridden the sincerity of the interaction thus making the conversation far less meaningful than it was (Saville-Troike 1989: 142). In this way, the strongest key takes center stage and is determined by who the participants of the communicate event are, what their relationship as well as the nature of the conversation. Further, the key of the communicative event may be determined through the use of nonverbal cues in addition to the dialogue. For example, if one person winks at the other this may suggest some teasing during the conversation while a stiff posture may indicate that a serious conversation is occurring (Saville-Troike 1989: 142). Observing the communicative event that is analyzed here, the nonverbal cues may have included changes in facial expression when the friends began to discuss why one friend had been to busy to spend time with friends. Watching these facial expressions would lend insight into how serious or friendly the communicative event really was. Participants The participants are the most important component of a communicative event. Without participants, conversation would never happen. The participants in this communicative event were two young male university friends. The absence of females indicates the nature of gender roles in the Saudi Arabian culture. In the Arabic culture, males are not permitted to meet with females and are only allowed to converse with other males. This information provides important information regarding the role relationship of conversation in Saudi Arabia as well as information about sex and social status (Saville-Troike 1989: 143). The absence of females provides a great deal of information about the Arabic culture. It shows what the rights of each member of society are as well as the attitudes, expectations and behaviors toward others. It also shows who has authority over whom (Saville-Troike 1989: 143). This communicative event shows that males are the dominant gender in Saudi Arabian culture and this prevents them from openly conversing with females. Further, it gives insight into the attitudes, expectations and behaviors expected from males versus females. Finally, the culture dictates the formality or informality of a communicative event (Saville-Troike 1989: 144). This exchange between two young male friends was informal as compared to a conversation that may take place between a young Arab male and an older Arab male. In other words, the participants engaging in conversation have a direct influence over the nature of the communicate event and dictate what type of interaction will take place. Message Form Message form, message content and act sequence are determined by various social, cultural and situational constraints on communicative behavior. Each of these components can be presented vocally or non vocally (Saville-Troike 1989: 144). Many cultures rely on non vocal sounds to represent meaning in conversation and these make up the message form. These vocal and non vocal sounds make up the verbal and non verbal components of conversation style. For example, the verbal vocal relationship includes spoken language while the non verbal vocal relationship includes such things as laughter. Similarly, the non vocal verbal relationship is comprised of such things as written language or sign language while the non vocal non verbal relationship includes such things as silence and eye behavior (Saville-Troike 1989: 145). Although these different aspects of language vary across cultures, they are important aspects of any communication style. This communicative event example used here relies on these different relationships in order to allow the participants to engage in a conversation that has meaning to both parties. The two friends engaged in the verbal vocal relationship simply by exchanging spoken dialogue. At the same time, they engaged in the non verbal vocal relationship by relying on laughter to become part of their conversation. They also relied on the non vocal verbal relationship through the use of hand gestures and facial expressions that lent support to the nature of the conversation and also injected meaning into the exchange. Finally, the two friends showed the non vocal non verbal relationship through their use of appropriate silences and eye contact while speaking to one another. Message Content The message content is closely related to message form and cannot be separated for appropriate analysis to occur (Saville-Troike 1989: 150). Message content refers to what communicative acts are about and what meaning they hold. The dialogue and silences of a communicate event make up the message form while the meaning and implications derived from the communicative event make up the message content (Saville-Troike 1989: 150). The overall meaning of a communicate event rely on the verbal and non verbal messages being exchanged. However, meaning is also derived from extra linguistic context as well as information and expectations participants bring to the conversation (Saville-Troike 1989: 150). The physical content of a communicative event is important because it lends additional information to the exchange that allows for enhanced meaning. In this way, people who do not even speak the same language are often able to find meaning in their exchange simply be relying on physical objects or other outside influences that inject meaning without words (Saville-Troike 1989: 151). Whatever type of physical objects, outside influences or even hand gestures that are used during a communicative event it is important that they convey meaning and allow for a successful conversation. The example of a conversation used here was successful because the two friends understood the location they were in as well as the gestures each person used during the course of the communicative event. Act Sequence The act sequence component of a communicative event includes information about the ordering of the conversation. This is evident through the appropriate initiation of conversation by one person and the following of that initiation by the other person (Saville-Troike 1989: 152 Ã¢â¬â 153). The example provided here is a good example of appropriate initiation. One of the young men starts the conversation by saying, Ã¢â¬Å"peace be upon youÃ¢â¬ and the other man responded with, Ã¢â¬Å"peace be upon you too. Ã¢â¬ In Saudi Arabian culture this is an important greeting and indicates friendship and goodwill at the start of a conversation. Eliminating this greeting would suggest anger and would upset the natural ordering of conversations in Arabic culture (Saville-Troike 1989: 153). Regular patterns and recurring events are important cultural component of communicative events. When participants follow these patterns and recurring events it suggests that the nature of conversations is important and sacred within a culture. Further, the types of patterns that emerge from these patterns and recurring events allow for comparison across cultures (Saville-Troike 1989: 153 Ã¢â¬â 154). The conversation between the two young Arabic students followed a natural progression and provided important insight into the nature of communicative events in Arabic culture. Rules for Interaction The rules of interaction dictate an explanation for the rules of speech which are applicable to communicative event in a specific culture (Saville-Troike 1989: 154). These rules refer to the way that the participants in the conversation are expected to behave based on the values of their culture (Saville-Troike 1989: 154). Again, the special greeting at the start of this conversation is one example of an expectation for behavior. In Arabic culture, this is the standard greeting that comes at the beginning of a communicative event and Arabic males are expected to make use of it. These rules may not necessarily be dictated by law but are used based on values that are important within a specific culture (Saville-Troike 1989: 154). Arabic law does not require this greeting at the start of a conversation, but the values and beliefs of the Arabic culture make the greeting an expectation. Further, the use of this greeting indicates the role of turn taking in conversation within the Arabic culture. The initial greeting is followed by a follow up greeting which allows the participants to take turns greeting one another and starting a conversation. At the same time, turn taking is important in this example of a communicative event because it allows each young man to have a turn speaking while the other young man listens. This injects meaning into the conversation because the interaction relies on listening skills as well as speaking skills to get the point across (Saville-Troike 1989: 155). Norms of Interpretation Norms of interpretation are important because they provide all of the other information about the culture. These are essential for the overall understanding of the communicative event (Saville-Troike 1989: 155). For example, the different types of speech must be analyzed in order to fully understand cultural differences within a conversation. This example of the communicative event used here includes the use of the phrase, Ã¢â¬Å"old man. Ã¢â¬ In some cultures this may a derogatory phrase but is included in this example to show respect. In Arabic culture using the term Ã¢â¬Å"old manÃ¢â¬ shows respect for oneÃ¢â¬â¢s elders and the young men use it in reference to one of their fathers. The understanding that this phrase shows respect is well known within the Arabic culture so it becomes a norm of conversation that is acceptable (Saville-Troike 1989: 155). Conclusion The development of communicative competence cannot take place without a relationship among these eleven components (Lock 1983: 253). Contexts rely on cultural information in order to provide an interplay of conversation as well as the self concepts of the participants and social structure acceptable within a society (Lock 1983: 253). A relationship among these eleven components can lead to successful communicative competence based on the cultural implications of language and how this relates to self concept and social structure (Lock 1983: 253). This can be directly applied to the language teacher because communicative competence is a cornerstone of successful language acquisition (Lee 2006: 349). Further, successful communicative events are only possible if a language teacher is able to blend the cultural components of the native language with the cultural components of the new language (Holliday 1997: 212). Therefore, an understanding of communicative competence is an essential part of successful language instruction (Lee 2006: 349). Communicative competence is the part of language knowledge that dictates which communicative system to use (Stalker 1989: 182). When the communicative system chosen is spoken language or conversation it is important to connect the goals and context of the situation in order to have a meaningful communicative event (Stalker 1989: 182). A basic understanding of what communication abilities are necessary for successful conversation within a specific culture is necessary to function adequately in society (Wiemann & Backlund 1980: 185). Therefore, the eleven components applied to a specific conversation example provide evidence and insight into the importance of language teachers enabling students to gain the knowledge the learning necessary in order to successfully participate in communicative encounters (Wiemann & Backlund 1980: 185; Gardner 1994: 104). To this end, it is important to provide students with knowledge pertaining to the use of key words within a particular culture (Wierzbicka 1997: 6) as well as analyze the importance of the relationship between the eleven components of language (Saville-Troike 1989: 156). Finally, the overall outcome of communication is to discover the unique events and recurring patterns within a specific culture (Saville-Troike 1989: 177). This can only be done through careful observation and analysis of communicative events within a particular culture (Saville-Troike 1989: 177). Aune, R. K. ; Levine, T. R. ; Park, H. ; Asada, K. K. ; & Banas, J. A. 2005. Tests of a theory of communicative responsibility. Journal of Language and Social Psychology, 24 (4): 358 Ã¢â¬â 381. Gardner, R. 1994. Conversation analysis: some thoughts on it applicability to applied linguistics. Australian Review of Applied Linguistics, Series S (11): 97 Ã¢â¬â 118. Holliday, A. 1997. Six lessons: cultural continuity in communicative language teaching. Language Teaching Research, 1 (3): 212 Ã¢â¬â 238. Jacobs, G. M. & Farrell, T. S. C. 2003. Understanding and implementing the CLT paradigm. RELC Journal, 34 (1): 5 Ã¢â¬â 30. Lee, Y. 2006. Towards respectification of communicative competence: condition of L2 instruction or its objective? Applied Linguistics, 27 (3): 349 Ã¢â¬â 376. Lock, A. 1983. Communicative contexts and communicative competence. Journal of Language and Social Psychology, 2 (2-3-4): 253 Ã¢â¬â 266. Orr, W. W. R. 2008. Ã¢â¬ËProspecting an encounterÃ¢â¬â¢ as a communicative event. Discourse Studies, 10 (3): 317 Ã¢â¬â 339. Saville-Troike, M. 1989, Ã¢â¬ËThe analysis of communicative eventsÃ¢â¬â¢, in The Ethnography of Communication: An Introduction, 2nd edn, Basil Blackwell, Oxford, pp. 107-180. Spada, N. M.1987. Relationships between instructional differences and learning outcomes: a process-product study of communicative language teaching. Applied Linguistics, 8 (2): 137 Ã¢â¬â 161. Stalker, J. C. 1989. Communicative competence, pragmatic functions, and accommodation. Applied Linguistics, 10 (2): 182 Ã¢â¬â 193. Wiemann, J. M. & Backlund, P. 1980. Current theory and research in communicative competence. Review of Educational Research, 50 (1): 185 Ã¢â¬â 199. Wierzbicka, A. 1997, Ã¢â¬ËIntroductionÃ¢â¬â¢, in Understanding Cultures Through Their Key Words, Oxford University Press, Oxford, pp. 1-31.
Posted by j at 1:07 PM
Friday, August 30, 2019
In Ã¢â¬Å"ArabyÃ¢â¬ , Ã¢â¬Å"EvelineÃ¢â¬ , and Ã¢â¬Å"The DeadÃ¢â¬ , three short stories featured in James JoyceÃ¢â¬â¢s The Dubliners, the characters struggle with whether to live their lives with a structured routine or to seek opportunities, change, and adventure. These short stories center around everyday life for citizens of Dublin, Ireland in the early 20th century, when a choice between continuing the inherited tradition of routine and structure versus seeking any other form of life or adventure could be the most important decision in the peoplesÃ¢â¬â¢ lives. With the terrible potato famine still in living memory and with Ireland seeking a new culture and identity, many of its citizens clung to their routine as means of survival. The quotidian routine of the characterÃ¢â¬â¢s lives suppresses and dominates the characters, preventing any of the charactersÃ¢â¬â¢ ideas and dreams of seeking adventure. In Ã¢â¬Å"Araby,Ã¢â¬ every aspect of the little boyÃ¢â¬â¢s rou tine and everyday life impedes him from his adventurous goals of visiting the annual bazaar and fulfilling his dream of a relationship with ManganÃ¢â¬â¢s sister. Despite his infatuation with his friend ManganÃ¢â¬â¢s sister, the boy cannot work up the courage to spark a conversation and is pleasantly surprised when she asks him if he is going to the annual bazaar, hosted in Dublin. She then says that she is unable to attend, and the boy offers to bring her an item from the bazaar. Every aspect of the boyÃ¢â¬â¢s routine and everyday life seems to be trying to impede the boy from his goals, from schoolÃ¢â¬â¢s boring lessons to his uncle forgetting to arrive home early enough to give him money for the train fair because he was out drinking. Despite the adversities of his everyday life attempting to ensnare him, the boy does make it to the bazaar, but his hopes about the bazaar are not fulfilled. When the boy arrives at the bazaar, he realizes that the bazaar does not live up to his expectations. The untimely distractions that caused the boy to be late to the bazaar cause the boy to show up after most of the excitement and trade has already ended. He approaches one stall that is still open, but the owner of the stall seems to be preoccupied with a conversation with several men. The woman notices him, but the boy says how Ã¢â¬Å"Ã¢â¬ ¦the tone of her voice was not encouraging; she seemed to have spoken to [him] out of a sense of dutyÃ¢â¬ . The boy buys nothing, feeling unwanted by the woman watching over the goods. With no purchase for ManganÃ¢â¬â¢s sister, the narrator stands angrily in the deserted bazaar as the lights go out, with his hopes crushed as his grandiose imagination of the bazaar is disillusioned. This realization deflates the boyÃ¢â¬â¢s hopes and dreams of an adventurous and exotic life, ending his wishful love affair with his friendÃ¢â¬â¢s sister, as well as ending his ambitions for a more adventurous life, and is analogous to JoyceÃ¢â¬â¢s Ã¢â¬Å"The DeadÃ¢â¬ . In Ã¢â¬Å"The DeadÃ¢â¬ , the banal and reflectively melancholy party is indicative of the monotonous routine that the Dubliners live by; however, Gabriel, the protagonist, struggles with the psychological battle with his methodical approach to life versus a more acceptin g and unconventional mindset, in which he wishes to enjoy a happier outlook on life. The motif of adventure versus routine is ever-present in this short story through JoyceÃ¢â¬â¢s meticulous and selective diction. During a very normal routine of dinner, the food is on Ã¢â¬Å"rival endsÃ¢â¬ of the table, divided by Ã¢â¬Å"sentries of fruitÃ¢â¬ , and watched afar by Ã¢â¬Å"three squads of bottlesÃ¢â¬ . This militaristic diction transforms a seemingly harmless dinner table into an adventurous battlefield filled with action and excitement. The Ã¢â¬Å"battlefieldÃ¢â¬ is not the dinner table, but the story in itself. The war is not between sentries and squadrons of bottles, but between the routine of life versus the hunger for opportunity. After dinner, the guests begin to dance. The guests partake in Ã¢â¬Å"memorized dance stepsÃ¢â¬ and fall into habit and routine, one after the other. These structured dance steps rob the dancers of their individuality and creativity as uniform seizes the dance floor. The dancers are either forced to abandon their creativity and join in on the synchronized march of the automatons or be excluded from the group. Later on in the story, Gabriel learns from his wife about a previous lover. Gabriel enters a pensive and reflective state, in which he muses on the mass snow covering all of Ireland, which most likely covers the grave of Michael, his wifeÃ¢â¬â¢s ex-lover, as well as the graves of all future Dubliners. The snow, the culmination of millions of individual and unique snowflakes melting together to form one entity of uniformity, became a metaphor for the all-encompassing routine of the characters in Dubliners, covering them in life and in death. GabrielÃ¢â¬â¢s reflections towards the end of the novel give the short s tory its name of Ã¢â¬Å"The DeadÃ¢â¬ , which is what all of the routine and structure does the characters in The Dubliners. Despite all of the negative occurrences that the routine of the evening and of life bring upon Gabriel, he summons the courage to change his bleak outlook on life, vowing to have a more optimistic and open view on the world. In Ã¢â¬Å"EvelineÃ¢â¬ , the protagonist Eveline is faced with a rare opportunity to move away from Ireland to Buenos Aires with her boyfriend, Frank, but the routines and memories of her life ensnare her and prevent her from making the choice to seek adventure and excitement. This decision is an important crossroads in EvelineÃ¢â¬â¢s life, to continue with a life of an abusive father or an uncertain future with her boyfriend. The story begins with Eveline reflecting upon her childhood and contemplating the difficult decision that lies before her. She first has an epiphany, realizing that she cannot stay where she is, stuck in the autonomous life of routine and then becomes sympathetic to her father, saying how he was not all that abusive to her. Soon after th is thought, Eveline hears an organ playing in the street, reminding Eveline of her mother. This recollection of her mother immediately compels Eveline to decide that she cannot live her life the way her mother did, being swallowed up and forgotten by the routines of cooking and cleaning, all but forgotten in a sad and monotonous life. Eveline decides to head to Buenos Aires with Frank. As they are about to board the ship, Eveline resorts back to her routine by praying. The familiar chanting of the prayers versus the desire to flee with Frank renders Eveline in a state of paralysis, stripped of confidence after the destructive battle raging in her head between the two waging sides of her life, fiercely battling each other for superiority of EvelineÃ¢â¬â¢s subconcious. Eveline is left on the docks while Frank boards the ship. Because she does not move away from her routines, she is stuck forever with them. Her momentary epiphany regarding her mother and the monotonous routines of her life will go in vain, and she will end up living the exact life that her mother did. The vicious cycle of repetitive and mundane routine leaves the Dubliners helpless and lonely. Often, the routine forces the character into a state of unrequited love. In Ã¢â¬Å"ArabyÃ¢â¬ , the routine leaves the boy in love with ManganÃ¢â¬â¢s sister, never to know whether she shared any of his feelings. In Ã¢â¬Å"EvelineÃ¢â¬ , Eveline is left in the abusive and vicious cycle of her life, while her love is sailing off to Buenos Aires. In Ã¢â¬Å"The DeadÃ¢â¬ , Michael is literally buried under the mass routine of the snow, while his lover lives on, loving someone else. These protagonists each face difficult situations, of which they are not sure how to solve. As a mechanism of coping, they seek repetition, comfort, and conformity that only the routines of their average lives can bring. Without ever taking chances, they are sure to never achieve more than an average life. The characters in The Dubliners never take a chance to succeed and triumph over mediocrity. In doing this, they never give themselves a chance to fail, but they also never give themselves a chance to succeed. These characters have an opportunity to try to lift themselves up from the routinely abusive cycle of their lives, but cannot free themselves from their shackles, simply adding a few more degrees to the circle of false hopes and adventure that defines these misfortunate and disillusioned characters. Works Cited: Joyce, James. Ã¢â¬Å"Dubliners.Ã¢â¬ Project Gutenberg. N.p., n.d. Web. 14 Nov. 2012. .
Posted by j at 3:30 PM
Thursday, August 29, 2019
In the tribal villages of eastern Africa the Maasai marriages are arranged by the elders without ever first consulting the bride or the mother of the bride to be. Unlike, that of my own culture in the United States of America, where I am free as a citizen to choose whomever I may choose to marry and when and if I may marry. Polygyny is that of which is practiced in the Maasai culture, as an ideal that is achieved only by that of the elder men of the tribe. Unfortunately, as a result ofthemen being much older at the time of marriage, most women become widows, knowing that it is understood that they should never remarry again. Although, I myself practice monogamy, as it is tradition in my culture and that of what is expected by me, my community, and my family. A young girl's childhood in Maasai culture is dominated by a strict avoidance of her father and other elders. Her marriage prospects and her family's reputation hinges on her ability to develop an accurate sense of respect in her community. She is socialized from birth to accept her service to her future husband as an elder and to all other elders in the community. The father is the key figure in the patriarchal family. Theoretically, his control is absolute only to the interference by close senior elders. It is tradition in Maasai culture that as long as the father is alive, no son has final control over his cattle or over his choice in marriage. It is practiced that as the younger men of the community age, the older men begin to rely on their sons to take over the management of the family. After a husband's death, the widow is then subordinate to her sons in the management of her herd. If she has no sons; she is unprotected. As this idea is not practiced in my own community, where typicallythe roles of the head of house hold is shared among husband and wife equally. Inheritance of property and land is dispersed thru the doctrine of a will written out before death or handled in the courts of law. Although, respect is greatly admired and sought out upon in my community, it does not determine the stance of potential marriages and families in the community. A young girls childhood is shared by the love and affection of a girlÃ¢â¬â¢s father and elders, not that of fear and solitude. Love, high morals, and affection is that of which typical childhoods are instilled with upon their growing up in my society. Similar to that of my own culture, the marriage ceremonyis one of the longest and most celebrated ceremonies in the Maasai community. It begins by a man showing interest in a woman and giving her a chain, called an olpisiai, similar in retrospect as that of an engagement ring in American society. Likewise, as the word of this proposal circulates the family as well as the community waits for the initial proceedings to begin. The Maasai man does this by finding women of his own age who will bring a gift of alcohol to the mother of the girl. This first stage called esirit enkoshoke indicates to everyone that the girl is now engaged. After some odd time, the man has to make his intentions clear again once more. By presenting a gift of alcohol to the girl's father, the man has shown this once again, as the alcohol will be brought by the same women who brought the other gift of alcohol to the women earlier. The gift of alcohol is called enkiroret, which the father of the intended bride drinks with his brothers and then summons the man asking him to declare his initial interest and to speak of the woman he wishes to marry. If the family agrees to the man's request, both parties officially establish a relationship, and the wedding planning begins to take foot. In the Maasai community and as in mine, marriage is considered very important. However, when two people are brought together to become a husband and wife in the Maasai community, the newlyweds are expected to live with each other forever; divorce is not an option. Once the Maasai man has chosen and paid for his wife he is then allowed to bring gifts to the woman's family. By first giving the presents as he sees fit, to a final point where it will become clear to those in the community that he has taken an interest in the well-being of the girl's family and that she is not to be readily available. These gifts the Maasai man has given to the girl will create the bride-to-beÃ¢â¬â¢s dowry, the purpose of which is not to create wealth for the bride's family, but rather to legalize the marriage. By the man putting his mark on that family, he is making itso that if anyone else tries to approach the family and offer a bride price, it will have been made clear that the girl has already been given away to another family and is spoken for. Like that of an engagement ring or wedding band worn by both the men and women in my community, as it is displaying to everyone that they are spoken for and are not available to others in the community. As the wedding day begins in Maasai culture the groom brings the bride price, including three cows, of which two are female and one is male and all are black, and two sheep, one female and the other male. The male sheep is to be slaughtered during the wedding day to remove its rich fats and oils, which will then later be applied to the wedding dress. The remainingÃ¢â¬â¢s of the oil is put in a container for the bride to carry to her new home after the wedding in her husband's kraal. The morning of the wedding, the bride's head is shaved and anointed with lamb fat. She is decorated similarly to that of my own culture by beautiful beaded decorations, and her wedding dress. Although unlike wise, her dress is made by relatives in the community and her mother, making the wedding dress an expression of community, not individuality. The bride is also blessed by the elders using alcohol and milk, and she is led from her family's kraal to her new home, in the kraal of her husband. There, she will enter the house of her husband's mother, where she will stay for the next two days, during which time the groom may not sleep with her or eat food in the house she is staying in. Finally, after those two days, the wife's head is shaved once more by her husband's mother, and the wedding ceremony is finally over; the man and woman are married elders. Concluding that although both cultures differ greatly in their practices and expectations there are still similarities to be understood. Both cultures dually express and display their affection towards one another in some public manor or display. Even if our ideals and morals are different, the feelings that everyone wants to be with their true love forever is evident.
Posted by j at 5:53 PM
Wednesday, August 28, 2019
Ethnic studies - Term Paper Example forcement of policies, attitudes, practices that yield equitable opportunity, power, access, treatment, impacts and outcome for all (Yamamoto, pp, 7). Most people have the perception of racism as an individual action such as prejudice or intentional acts of discrimination but racism is just more than individual acts. Racism is a set of cultural, societal and institutional practices and beliefs that subordinate and oppress one race for the benefit of another. Nevertheless, a racial justice integrates the beliefs and practices but still include prejudice as one of the way racism is propagated. If cases of racism exist in a society, the best response is to provide diversity training or sensitivity training. The racial justice framework would seek to evaluate the social injustices, systems, polices and laws and if cases of inequality are found hold them accountable and demand for systemic change. Racism traces its genesis in the colonial relationships, slavery and capitalism. These three elements are the roots of racisms that have manifested itself in different forms such as human oppression such as mentally, financially or socially. Empathy has always played a central role towards racial justice. The understanding and having compassion for those undergoing racism have ignited the racial justice that currently seen in the world. It is the fight for those who felt this is not right that led to emergence of racial justice. For instance, empathy exhibited by the famous leaders such as Martin Luther King on social equality gave birth to racial justice. Those people who felt the minority were being left out during voting exercise and brought the case to US court in 1965 led to change of the system whereby everyone was allowed to vote regardless of the social status or race so long such individual had the requisite age. Yamamoto offers four aspects as a working definition towards racial justice. These integral aspects when incorporated together works on a theory that
Posted by j at 8:06 PM
Tuesday, August 27, 2019
Consumer Culture - Research Paper - Essay Example The television, however, in itself has brought great detriment to the human society. In the twenty-first century, the television is a major contributor to consumerism. A hypothesis on the beginning of American consumerism builds from the context of the mid 1940Ã¢â¬â¢s to the 1950Ã¢â¬â¢s. The Keynesian reconstruction principles and the spurred economic growth delivered new products delivered increased per capita income to families. Jobs were abundant, wages surged, and the Americans saw a promising country that would deliver previously suffocated promises. People married and bore children at unimagined rates. In addition, people bought homes as suburbs rapidly expanded. From the mid 1940Ã¢â¬â¢s to the 1950Ã¢â¬â¢s, consumption was a form of patriotism. In this sense, individuals did not lonely indulge in irrational material desire but viewed such a behavior as delivering the goals of the American nation. It is speculated that this view is attributable to the Keynesian economics which proposed consumption as the only way of raising the American economy out of the depression. Family life and the home was the epicenter of consumerism. This expl ains the high level purchases of items such as washing machines, refrigerators, vacuum cleaners, cars, and the television. The American psyche believed that such machines would inject modernity in their homes. For instance, between 1945 and 1959, Americans bought 21.4 million cars and 20 million refrigerators (The Tupperware 1). The television, especially, became a key symbol of modernity and lives of people began depending on the then marvelous gadget (Gray 23). Such hedonism would not have been possible without an overwhelming influence, the television. Television has the emotions that spur a hedonistic culture whereby individuals highly respond to visual impulses. In such a setting, individuals constantly daydream about products that can fill their lives. The American business landscape
Posted by j at 10:35 PM
E-commerce law in European Union - Essay Example To quote the report, most retailers "still seem to operate on the assumption that the internal market is partitioned along national lines".1 Doubts over the enforcement of e-commerce laws among the member countries of the European Union have been expressed by stakeholder groups like the European Digital Rights (EDRi). Concerns regarding the future of electronic commerce in the E.U. internal market have arisen because of insufficient surety of legal action by the governments, institutions and private parties. It is said that lack of certainty resulting in legal action may undermine human rights such as freedom of expression, freedom of information, freedom of thought, freedom of creation, the right to education, as well as the rights to privacy and the protection of personal data.2 2 Ã¢â¬Å"EU E-Commerce Law May Undermine Human Rights, Group SaysÃ¢â¬ . IDG News. 11 Nov. 2010. http://www.pcworld.com/businesscenter/article/210408/eu_ecommerce_law_may_undermine_human_rights_group_says.html The governments, industry groups and E.U. are looking to tighten online privacy to protect user data. As per the Wall Street report, paper work is in processing stage to create Ã¢â¬Å""A comprehensive approach on personal data protection in the European Union." The E.U. member states view the protection of personal data a fundamental right while on the other hand the Digital Due Process coalition, an industry group with members such as Google, eBay, Microsoft, AT&T, the ACLU and Americans for Tax Reform have different plans on privacy reforms. They are against any more protections. Conflicting stakes have created the need to define and enforce rules clearly and limit the undue interference of the regulators.3 As per the new strategy paper of the European Commission, Ã¢â¬Å"People should be able to give their informed consent to the processing of their personal data,Ã¢â¬ the European Commission said Thursday in a new strategy paper. The E.U. has finally decided to
Posted by j at 1:07 AM
Monday, August 26, 2019
Intellectual Heritage - Essay Example The three major religions of the World, Bible, Quran, and the Baghavat Gita, have a similar notion about the relationship between God and Man. They observe Human Beings in terms of men and women created by God with an intentional duty on earth. Bible says God created human beings form his breath and the dust form earth. The trees in the garden called paradise reveal the relationship between God and man. The command given by God to the first man shows the relationship between God and human, that human is GodÃ¢â¬â¢s attendant given to the earth to fulfil the purpose of God. In the sense, God is the dictator and man need to obey in order to keep the earth always a paradise. This sounds almost similar with that of Bhagavat Gita, in which Lord Krishna exemplifies the supreme Goal of God in terms of Yogas such as Raja Yoga , Bhakthi Yoga, Karma Yoga and Janana Yoga representing the meditation, devotion, selfless action and accumulation of knowledge respectively. Brahma is considered as the foremost God of creations. The supreme soul or paramatma is said to be found in the hearts of all human beings. If Brahma is the impersonal energy ruling the Universe, The paramatma form of God living in every bodyÃ¢â¬â¢s heart takes the transcendental form of God. As far as Good living is concerned man should follow Dharma or honesty, this is what Quran and Bible also insist. It manÃ¢â¬â¢s individuality ad true self could be realised by understanding the purpose governed by God to man [in Bible and Quran],then according to Bhagavat Gita the same is achieved in terms of self realisation which in turn reached by understanding the supreme existence of paramatma in every body. Freedom is looked upon in different aspect. Bible talks of freedom given to man with a certain restriction imposed by God. When God allows human beings to look after the Garden, He also makes a restriction that they should not touch the fruit of Knowledge. Quran, emphasises on manÃ¢â¬â¢s duty to
Posted by j at 3:40 AM
Sunday, August 25, 2019
Neogiation - Assignment Example It is therefore correct to say that the refusal of the union to hear the proposals was not done in good faith. The section that I rely upon in this matter is article XXXIV section 2 of the Collective Bargaining Agreement. The section is clear about the 30 days notice to be given by the party intending to make the modifications. It further states that a conference is to be held 10 days before the expiration of the agreement. In this case, the agreement was expiring on June 15 2009 and the conference was held on 1 June 2009, 14 days before the expiration. The word shall, denotes that it was necessary for the communication to be done on the first day, but the action by the union was meant to bar the same from taking place. In fact, during the day, suggestions to the same effect had been made in the meeting. To avoid the conflict that arose, it would have been better is the employer had allowed for negotiations. This was a collective bargaining agreement and one party should not have seemed like the one imposing terms on the other. The employer should also have been clear on its intention and not waiting until 4:30 Pm to make a formal proposal. What is important is the intention of the
Posted by j at 6:13 AM
Saturday, August 24, 2019
Models and Frame Works for Nursing - Essay Example The medic using this method should acknowledge that change could happen anytime (Baker,P.2000). They should also know that everyone what is good for them. The Tidal method should take place in three different levels which are the self-domain, world domain and the others domain. Self domain- In this level people are made to feel and identify with their experiences. The domain aims at making the patient feel more secure. The medic helps the patient make a Security Plan. World domain- This is where history is held. The person needs to be understood. The person taking the patient through this process asks questions about the past and reveals their meaning. The medic may also identify what needs to be done for efficient recovery. Other domain- This is a representation of the various relationship the person has. The person gets support from different people. The friend and family may do so. The person may also get financial advice among many others. The main aim of this domain or process i s to help the person live an effective ordinary life. The Tidal Method also uses the metaphor as mentioned earlier. The metaphor mostly used is that of the water. It explains that health is fluid in nature it is never stable. The water also describes how people can become emotionally, physically and spiritually unstable. This metaphor may help the doctor help the patient heal. The metaphor shows that problems do not last forever; they will change as time goes by ( Baker,P.2000). For care to be administered effectively, the person giving the care should realise that life changes and the nature of people to change too. The Tidal model likens experiences to Ã¢â¬Ëstorms in the sea or piracyÃ¢â¬â¢ and says that when one is able to heal they are Ã¢â¬Ëput to seaÃ¢â¬â¢. The Tidal model has three group processes; 1. Recovery group- The main aim of this group is to help the person have a good self-esteem. This group makes them realise that they can help others in the society even if t hey were distressed. 2. Solution groups- This group helps the people to explore and share with others their experiences to get solutions for their own lives. 3. Information groups- This group helps the mental patients know of what they are going through. It helps them to know the kind of medication they are using, legal issues among others. Nursing process The patient had the following nursing problems; Sever headache and stomach ache, lack of appetite, he stopped caring about his personal hygiene, he developed unctrollable fear that he would be ran over by a car, he became very antisocial and he became very violent. In this paper, I will look at the two problems that are headache and loss of appetite. For the problems named above the patent should try to relax. This is because the problems could be because of anxiety or distress. Using the Tidal model of nursing, the patient should understand that this problem will last forever and they should take it upon themselves to solve it. T he practitioner should put into practice the three main domains. In the self-domain, the practitioner should make the patient identify with their experience or problem. In the world domain, the practitioner should find out when the problem started and how it has grown to its current state. These questions help him or her identify with the
Posted by j at 8:46 AM
Friday, August 23, 2019
Discussion 2 Week 11 Best Practices - Assignment Example nagerial economics provided the theoretical frameworks for understanding the concept of demand and supply; as well as illuminating practitioners on differences in market structures (McGuigan, Moyer and Harris). From the experience in KatrinaÃ¢â¬â¢s Candies, it was revealed that there are pricing strategies that should be applied depending on the market structure that the organization is in: either in an oligopoly or monopolist structure. Likewise, forecasting tools are analytical techniques which provide insights to the organizationÃ¢â¬â¢s decision makers in terms of evaluating options according to anticipated results. The value of forecasting lies in the accuracy of identifying factors which could significantly affect the plans of the firm. As such, it is best practice to apply it and it helps in making responsible decisions based on projected goals. Finally, globalization takes into account increasing pressures for more competitors. As such, there is a need to undertake market research to discern the most-likely reaction and response of competitors should external factors affect the industry. The recession that affected the global market required application of transformed strategies to adapt and adjust to changes in demand and supply. As such, the reactions of competitors are useful inputs to work
Posted by j at 11:19 AM
Thursday, August 22, 2019
Cultural Considerations for Optimization of Innovation Essay Innovations that drive organizations are influenced by cultural elements. Change is a constant in the business world today and those companyÃ¢â¬â¢s that are able to manage the cultural considerations that are needed for the optimization of innovation will have a better chance at success. Innovation is driven by the need to keep pace with change. The culture that an organization sets forth will help drive the type of innovations that develop within the company. Innovation can be used for two purposes in business: 1. Ã¢â¬Å". . . some organizations recognize they are not growing fast enough and look to innovation to revive growth. . . (Collins 2007)Ã¢â¬ and 2. Ã¢â¬Å". . . other organizations want innovation to bring them valuable market differentiation (Collins 2007). Ã¢â¬ A company culture that encourages innovation maintains optimization of innovation. Thomas Gutteridge, Dean of the College of Business Administration at the University of Toledo, posits that Ã¢â¬Å". . all parties must understand and accept each othersÃ¢â¬â¢ unique culture and develop a mutual set of expectations (Gutteridge 2007). Ã¢â¬ Those organizations that make innovation a strategic priority foster a culture of acceptance of new ideas and change. Companies, such as 3M, that are successes at optimizing innovation consider four keys for effective innovation (Leavy 2005): 1. placing people and ideas at the heart of management philosophy, 2. iving people room to grow and learn from mistakes, 3. build a strong sense of openness and trust across organization, 4. facilitating the internal mobility of talent. Effective innovation requires a balance between play and discipline; practice and process; and creativity and efficiency (Leavy 2005). In all, company culture must be accepting of new ideas and provide platforms for employees to feel comfortable bringing new ideas to help the organization keep up with change.
Posted by j at 3:00 PM
Wednesday, August 21, 2019
Legal Ethical Environment of Business Essay In this individual project I will be analyzing and explaining the state of our legal system in terms of ethics as a personal and business standpoint. Secondly I will be figuring out if our legal system promotes bad ethics and what they are doing in trying to make it into god ethics. Then lastly I will be going over the role of judges in promoting good legal ethical practices in our society as of today. Sate of Our Legal System in Terms of EthicsÃ Ethical assessment making begins with the reaction that there is a good versus a bad moral decision to be made conÃ cerning a particular condition a Ã¢â¬Å"correctÃ¢â¬ choice established on interests benefiting mortality in some way as different to a Ã¢â¬Å"incorrectÃ¢â¬ choice established on some corrupt or self-serving concern. It also involves characters to appraise the morality of their own, and often othersÃ¢â¬â¢, actions (Board, 2012). Ethics are the resources by which we choose what movements are allowable and what activities are not. What is less identified is the fact that every ethic involves of two quantities: an importance that explains what it is that we need more of in our lives, or what we wish to exploit, and a belief, or system of views, that defines what activities we are to take to acquire more of the worth that we pursue. Still less frequently known is the fact that an ethic may be effective or unacceptable. Effective ethics create the preferred outcomes an escalation in the standards wanted. Void ethics create the opposite result a decreasing of that which is pursued or wanted. As an example, contemplate the ethic implemented by our countryÃ¢â¬â¢s forefathers. The assessment they wished to exploit was freedom for the countryÃ¢â¬â¢s societies (excluding maybe women and slaves). The belief system was founded on the values of a democratic republic memorial popular regulation. Each year but two (1865 and 1920) we have had less freedom than the year before (Singer, n. d. ). Today, through the propagation of ever more preventive laws, almost every part of our lives is structured or controlled by our county, state, federal, or public governments. Without government authorization we cannot drive a car, own property, board a plane, modify our home, open a bank account, control a business, consume prescribed medication, carry a gun, or do any of a thousand other things that our forefathers and foremothers would have reflected to be our unchallengeable rights. In short, the creators of our country chose to implement an ethic that is unacceptable because its acceptance fashioned the conflicting effect of that anticipated. While we are on the focus of ethics, letÃ¢â¬â¢s consider two other precise ethics that are particularly appropriate to an considerate of the problem that mortality presently faces. The first I shall mention to as the Power Ethic. This ethic pursues to exploit power over others in the influences of those who accept it. The confidence system that supports this ethic can be summarized by the declaration, Ã¢â¬Å"Might makes rightÃ¢â¬ . In other words, those who can afford to buy artillery and to pay or intimidate young men and women to use those arms in combat have the right to exercise power over others for whatever reasons they wish. This is the ethic accepted by those who conceived government as-we-know-it in Sumer eight thousand years ago. This ethic is still the principle of those who run the governments of the world nowadays. At first it might seem that the Power Ethic is effective because, undeniably, those who have accepted it have prospered in accruing more and more power over their associated men and women. But there are secondary penalties. Incorporated among these are drug addiction, international strife, poverty, hunger, slavery, terrorism, wars, interpersonal violence, bureaucracy, oligarchy, environmental degradation, and all manner of crime. If the macroscopic development continues it is more than likely that the end outcome will be the total extermination of all human life on our planet thus decreasing the earth to a radioactive residue. Like a universal pest, those who have espoused the Power Ethic will abolish their host and themselves with it. So in the end the ethic is not usable. By contrast, reflect an ethic that picks originality and its logical counterparts as the standards to be exploited. Such means as love, consciousness, objective truth, and development may be measured as reasonable equivalents of imagination, because whenever one of these assets is amplified they are all improved, and vice versa. John David Garcia, the brilliant author of Creative Transformation, called this ethic the Evolutionary Ethic, so I will do likewise (AIU Online, 2013). We might note at this point that all affluence, and eventually all cheerfulness, originates from someoneÃ¢â¬â¢s creativeness. The belief system that authorizes this ethic instigates with the concept that an act is good if it intensifications originality or any of its logical counterparts for at least one person without limiting or fading creativity for anyone. From this meaning a broad variety of values can be resulting by simple judgment. This ethic, it turns out, is effective. Inquisitively, the acceptance of this ethic normally exploits affluence and happiness, even though these are not logical equivalents of creativeness. In fact, ethics based on the expansion of affluence and happiness are not lawful creating poverty and unhappiness in its place. From this point on I shall use the terms ethical and unethical in place to this ethic precisely. There are numerous other legal ethics which I choose not to discuss in this paper excluding to note that each of them shows, upon close inspection, to be logical counterparts of the Evolutionary Ethic in that they call for the same interactive choices when determining between alternative sequences of action. From the preceding we can see that mortalityÃ¢â¬â¢s bigÃ problemÃ is the fact that the worldÃ¢â¬â¢s governments, without omission, have selected the Power Ethic as their factor basis reasonably than the Evolutionary Ethic or one of its logical counterparts. The bigÃ questionÃ that humankind faces today is whether this choice is permanent and if not, what we must do to dodge the disaster that the Power Ethic is leading us toward (AIU Online, 2013). In our legal system in terms of ethics as being a big part of our nationÃ¢â¬â¢s survival and in terms of businesses keeping up a good production of products and jobs for eople to live on be able to pay bills and what not. Legal System Promote Bad Ethics In an ethical society freedom is restricted by ethical law. Those who wish to perform in a dependent or destructive manner are prohibited to do so. The inaccuracy of our establishment fathers was to exploit freedom in such a way that the most predacious, parasitic, and normally unethical persons were allowable to command the law, thereby creating the commands that allowed the ultra-wealthy to control the rest of us. We must reverse this trend if humanity is to survive, let alone thrive. To accomplish this end we must understand the nature of ethical law and disprove the authority of unethical law. To aid in descriptive this peculiarity, I shall mention to unethical laws as government announcements, or simply as pronouncements. If so, might makes right, and anyone who can afford to buy weapons and persuade others to use them to enforce their will has a right to so. This is the premise upon which all of todayÃ¢â¬â¢s governments are founded. This has been the true basis of law throughout the world for at least eight thousand years, since government was invented in Sumer. To answer this question properly, we note first that all law presumes the use of force or power over others. But it takes only a simple exercise of logic to see that the exercise of power over others is only ethical in self-protection against someone who has initiated or defenseless the use of force for their own purposes. Therefore, ethical laws are only those that provide defense against such unethical acts. Since everyone has the right to defend themselves against the use of violence, it follows that everyone has the right to delegate to others their specialist to defend themselves. From this we conclude that all ethical laws embody this principle: All ethical laws, all legitimate laws, represent a contract under which a group of individuals, each having the right of self-defense, agrees to enforce a mutual defense pact. Ethical law can exist for this purpose alone. Additionally, we note that all existing laws, and laws, forbid some act or permit the act only when a tax is paid to the government (AIU Online, 2013). Role of Judges in Promoting Good Legal Ethical Practices The makings of a good judge are the abilities of a good man. There are supplementary demands on a judge, to be sure information of the law, a will to append judgment until all the indication is in. But at least it must be the complexity and consistency of his mortality that succeed and define the judge (Newton, n. d. ). Those who come before a judge do not really know before whom they stand. The person who manages over the courtroom, covered in the earnest black robes of his or her office, is in that moment less an individual than a sign of democratic standards and an tool of state power. In appreciation of that power and ability, all rise as the judge enters the courtroom and takes the seat, eminent above everyone else in the room, from which impartiality will be noticeable. It is the hope of all, and the principle of most, that this individual will do his or her job well, administration what is possibly our most valuable social good justice. Yet, in most compliments, judges remain unidentified to those who conduct their business before the court. What no one knows, what no one is even allowed to ask, is the character of the person wearing that robe and the ways in which that individualÃ¢â¬â¢s particular aptitudes will affect the presentation of his or her responsibilities (Newton, n. d. ). The judges I interviewed all acknowledged both that doing their job involved elements of discretion and that exercising discretion was in some measure a reflection of oneÃ¢â¬â¢s own moral values. Yet, each responded to these challenges differently. Judge Meyer appeared most concerned about the subjectivity inherent in judging. In response to my proposition that judging elaborate evaluating the ethical character of people in certain ways and that this involved a good deal of indecision (Newton, n. d. ). Conclusion In conclusion, this individual project has really shown me some great ethics, morality and legalities in how to focus on the analysis of each portion of legal systems and role of judges in trying to promote good ethical practices. It just goes to show that in the different analysis in explaining the stat of our legal system in terms of ethics is a big portion in our societies now days. Although, in going into the legal system in promoting bad ethics is that you never really know what to expect in trying to promote bad ethics with some companies in furthering their demographic. However, in the role of judges in promoting good legal ethical practices is that judges have to stick with a strict process of being good in supporting these laws in the legal system in terms of ethics. So overall I found this assignment to have taught me some great information in trying to come up with the best research to best complement in delivering the additional material in providing the focus on this topic.
Posted by j at 6:41 PM
Tuesday, August 20, 2019
The Nurture And Nature Views Education Essay As a matter of fact, the nature/nurture debate has dominated the thoughts of researchers for a long time as people have been trying to find out the origin of intelligence. Bee believed that this question could possibly be among the oldest theories debated in psychology. The nurture view holds that human mind was born without any knowledge. This view is supported by empiricists, and one of the major tenants of empiricists is John Locke, a seventeenth English philosopher, who thought that humans are born with a tabula rasa, or a blank slate, and that knowledge is learnt and gained through experience.Ã In the 19th century, Hermann von Helmhotz believed that the raw data of sensation were perpetually subject to judgements based on experience. (Gigerenzer, 63) His research was that there is a simple inverse relationship between distance and retinal image size. (Gleitman, 249). In He concluded that it is through experience which we gain the ability to understand our visual perceptions. Empiricism was adopted by educationalists. Jean Piaget, a Swiss psychologist examined physical knowledge in infancy using some experiments, and concluded that children under 18 months of age had no knowledge of physical laws of motion because they looked for hidden objects in places that were not possible. Further, John B. Watson and B. F. Skinner, came with behaviourism to argue that a child can be made into any kind of person, regardless of their heredity. However other researchers questioned those findings and came with a different viewÃ : Innativism. Innativists claimed that a child was born with innate abilities which are actualised in context. This view was influenced by Plato, a Greek philosopher who thought that Children begin life with knowledge already present within them,; they do not learn anything new but merely recollect knowledge that has previously lain dormant. Nativism was later adopted by Immanuel Kant, a German philosopher of the 18th centry. Kant argued that the mind is born with a number of innate catergories, mainly space, time and causality, which enable people to understand their senses. It is these catergories, nativists say, that make perception possible. (Gleitman, 173) In other words, knowledge of these concepts is innate. Charles Darwin was also among those who offered evidence of inherited knowledge with his universality thesis where, after some cross-cultural studies, he observed that some facial expressions are universal to all people. Darwin finally explained that all people are born with an innate understanding of these facial expressions. (Gleitman, 477) One of the domains in which this debate has found implications in education is language acquisition. Despite the existence of several theories of language development, this essay limits only to three of them that have a close link with the nature/nurture debate. According to behaviourist theory, language is viewed as a kind of verbal behaviour, and based on this view they argue that children learn language through imitation, reinforcement, analogy, and structured input. This isÃ linguistic empiricism. Empiricists think that language is entirely learned. This is the nurture or external perspective. In this context, language and grammar become features of the organisms environment. Language is a cultural artifact. This is based on beviourism as the general theory of learning described by the psychologist John B. Watson in 1923. On the other hand, there is linguistic nativism, which holds that the basics of language and grammar are innate. This is the nature or internal perspective. In this context, language and grammar are built into every human being at birth. They are universals that all humans share, as language is in the genes. This is the theory advocated by the American linguist Noam Chomsky who argued for a universal grammar wired in every child brain. This position was also adopted by Jerry Fodor (1983) who studied the relationship between language and mind and viewed language as a modular process with implications for a theory of language acquisition, especially language acquisition as genetically predetermined. The third interesting theory is called interactionist theory, and states that there is a both a biological and a social aspect to language development. It states that language is developed through a childs desire to communicate his or her thoughts and feelings. The foundation of this view of language acquisition was laid by Vygotsky, a psychologist and social constructivist. Vygotsky argued that social interaction plays an important role in the learning process and proposed theÃ zone of proximal developmentÃ (ZPD) where learners construct the new language through socially mediated interaction. Thisn theory was later adopted byÃ Jerome BrunerÃ Ã who laid the foundations of a model of language development in the context of adult-child interaction. In education, it can be argued that both nature and nurture are responsible for how someone is today. For that reason, the position advocated by Robert Plomin would help to put both empiricism and nativism together for the good of children. Actually, the American Psychologist, Robert Plomin has demonstrated that genetic factors can mediate the link between the environment and person outcomes such as intelligence.Ã Actually, nowadays, it is commonly accepted that most aspects of a childs development are a product of the interaction of both nurture and nature (Bee, 2004) This means that aspects such as the innate ability of the child which is the inherited aspect of his life, and the environmental factors such as effects of family, peers, schools, neighborhoods, culture, the media, the broader society, and the physical environment. Should be taken into account. Nurture affects childrens development through multiple channels-physically through nutrition and activity; intellectually through informal experiences and formal instruction; socially through adult role modelsÃ and peer relationships (McDevitt and Ormrod, 2004: 7). At this point, one can share Ganly (2007) position and argue that Ã ¢Ã¢â ¬Ã ¦ it is hard to completely distinguish between the two ideas. Nature will inevitably affect the classroom performance of a student because a student inherits certain traits that pertain to education. A student inherits the ability to do well in certain subjects and poor in other subjects. A student also inherits the certain psychological traits such as shyness or self confidence. The nature aspect is important as it helps to determine inherited possible disabilities such as reading disability, so giving making teachers proactive and intervene at earlier stages. Educators have therefore to make sure the inner nature of a child is respected, that a child feels wanted and put in a supportive environment to learn. There should be a balance between class time between acquisition activities and learning exercises.Ã
Posted by j at 10:22 PM
Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã 4tH Quarter PaperÃ Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã There are many archetypical symbols used in hundreds of works, new and old. Some of these symbols include: war, peace, love, nature, birds, mountains, and darkness. These symbols have deep meaning which help embellish a certain work. They also help the reader to better understand the theme or plot of a work. They are used freely and abundantly in most modern and pre-modern works. Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã The archetypical symbol of war is used symbolically as a sense of conflict or tension. It may express disbelief, or trouble. In a sense it is used to draw the reader in close. War is never looked at as a positive thing. When we think of war, we think of violence, death, destruction, heartache, cold and bitterness. This is usually what is intended by the author. Usually peace is follows. Like any work there is a rise a climax and a fall in the plot. War or conflict is usually the strongest in the climax and then the peace comes during the falling point. Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã In the play of Hamlet war is used many times as a archetype symbol. Hamlet struggles with himself and in a way... Archetypes Essay -- essays research papers fc Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã 4tH Quarter PaperÃ Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã There are many archetypical symbols used in hundreds of works, new and old. Some of these symbols include: war, peace, love, nature, birds, mountains, and darkness. These symbols have deep meaning which help embellish a certain work. They also help the reader to better understand the theme or plot of a work. They are used freely and abundantly in most modern and pre-modern works. Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã The archetypical symbol of war is used symbolically as a sense of conflict or tension. It may express disbelief, or trouble. In a sense it is used to draw the reader in close. War is never looked at as a positive thing. When we think of war, we think of violence, death, destruction, heartache, cold and bitterness. This is usually what is intended by the author. Usually peace is follows. Like any work there is a rise a climax and a fall in the plot. War or conflict is usually the strongest in the climax and then the peace comes during the falling point. Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã In the play of Hamlet war is used many times as a archetype symbol. Hamlet struggles with himself and in a way...
Posted by j at 2:03 AM
Monday, August 19, 2019
Mary Warren is an important character in Arthur MillerÃ¢â¬â¢s play, THE CRUCIBLE. Much of the action in Act III revolves around MaryÃ¢â¬â¢s testimony in court. She is a kind and basically honest girl who tries to do the right thing, saving her friends from harm. However, throughout Acts I and II, Mary is a follower who allows Abigail Williams to negatively influence her good judgment. To make matters worse, Mary is terrified of AbigailÃ¢â¬â¢s threats. Because of her weak will, the reader isnÃ¢â¬â¢t certain if Mary will maintain the courage to help John Proctor to win his court case in Act III. Mary WarrenÃ¢â¬â¢s basic goodness is demonstrated on many occasions. She has been hired by John Proctor to help his wife Elizabeth with household chores. Mary proves to be a kind girl who gets along well with Mrs. Proctor. Although Mary has become a court official in Salem, she still gets up early in the morning to clean the ProctorsÃ¢â¬â¢ house. While in court, Mary passes the time by making Goody Proctor a present of a small rag doll called a poppet. Upset by the court proceedings, Mary tells Mr. Proctor that she is "all shuddery inside" because Goody Osburn will hang. When the poppet becomes false proof of witchcraft against Elizabeth, Mary willingly explains that the poppet is hers. She also makes a vain attempt to comfort John Proctor as the court officials drag his wife away in chains. A basic sense of honesty is another of Mary WarrenÃ¢â¬â¢s traits. In Act I she goes to Salem to convince Abigail to tell the truth about what really happened in the woods. When the witchcraft scare gets out of hand, Mary joins Abigail and the other girls in falsely accusing women of being witches. These false accusations are motivated by hysteria. There is evidence that Mary really believes that the women in court are bewitching her. She tells the judge that she thought she saw spirits. The other girls were screaming, and before she knew it, Mary was screaming with them. When she realizes that there are no spirits, Mary is willing to be truthful. After Elizabeth ProctorÃ¢â¬â¢s name is brought up in court, Mary Warren defends her against the accusation. At the end of Act II, the reader hopes that the basic sense of honesty will remain strong enough to allow Mary to testify on behalf of the accused women in Act III.
Posted by j at 5:44 AM
Sunday, August 18, 2019
Becoming a soldier The clock was ringing so loudly, it was like he was actually screaming at me. I reached my hand and slapped it. I did not want the night to be over already. I knew that this morning would be very long and grueling, the morning that I have been waiting for in a great fear for several months. It was the morning I was drafted to the army. In Israel, every boy and girl who reaches eighteen have to join the army. It is mandatory and it is for a minimum of three years for boys and a year and eight months for girls. During the eleventh and twelfth grade you go through several classification processes, in which the army determines where will everyone serve. The process of classification includes several tests, some of them are physical and others are in math and Hebrew. So on the day you are drafted you suppose to know where you are going to serve and what you are going to do, at least for the first few months of your service. For me the experience of joining the army at the age of eighteen was very difficult. I felt that these are my best years but instead of taking advantage of them I am going to the army. In other countries, when a person reaches eighteen he is usually going to college and "start his life". I on the other hand, was about to do one of the most demanding mission a man can do. I postponed my recruiting day as long as I could in order to travel and enjoy as much as I could in that time. I knew that I was going to be a fighter and give up the convenience of being home everyday, eat home made food, go out with friends, sleep in my bed. Instead I would sleep in a tent or lie on the ground on a stake out, eat bad food, and get to know new people. All that was hard for me to accept at the age of 18. To my parents I was the third child to go into the army. My older brother, who was also a fighter, was released two years before I got drafted. And my sister, who served in the intelligence corps, was released only four months before. We all woke up that morning like we did the past two times. Becoming A Soldier :: essays research papers Becoming a soldier The clock was ringing so loudly, it was like he was actually screaming at me. I reached my hand and slapped it. I did not want the night to be over already. I knew that this morning would be very long and grueling, the morning that I have been waiting for in a great fear for several months. It was the morning I was drafted to the army. In Israel, every boy and girl who reaches eighteen have to join the army. It is mandatory and it is for a minimum of three years for boys and a year and eight months for girls. During the eleventh and twelfth grade you go through several classification processes, in which the army determines where will everyone serve. The process of classification includes several tests, some of them are physical and others are in math and Hebrew. So on the day you are drafted you suppose to know where you are going to serve and what you are going to do, at least for the first few months of your service. For me the experience of joining the army at the age of eighteen was very difficult. I felt that these are my best years but instead of taking advantage of them I am going to the army. In other countries, when a person reaches eighteen he is usually going to college and "start his life". I on the other hand, was about to do one of the most demanding mission a man can do. I postponed my recruiting day as long as I could in order to travel and enjoy as much as I could in that time. I knew that I was going to be a fighter and give up the convenience of being home everyday, eat home made food, go out with friends, sleep in my bed. Instead I would sleep in a tent or lie on the ground on a stake out, eat bad food, and get to know new people. All that was hard for me to accept at the age of 18. To my parents I was the third child to go into the army. My older brother, who was also a fighter, was released two years before I got drafted. And my sister, who served in the intelligence corps, was released only four months before. We all woke up that morning like we did the past two times.
Posted by j at 9:25 AM
Saturday, August 17, 2019
The name Kate Chopin is synonymous with feminism.Ã For generations she has caused women to about their situations in life and caused men to fear her because she made women analyze.Ã She started writing after she was widowed and left with a plantation and children to rear while living in a male society.Ã Instead of remarrying just to save the plantation, she chose to stay single and move from Louisiana with her children to her hometown in Missouri.Ã Her physician advised her to write to overcome her depression.Little did anyone know that this advice would lead to the writing career of one of the foremost American female writers.Ã From the beginning, men saw her stories and novels as threatening.Ã It wasnÃ¢â¬â¢t until after her death that she was recognized for the talented writer that she really was.Ã The reason the men of her generation was her feminist themes.Ã Two examples where this strong theme is evident are Ã¢â¬Å"The StormÃ¢â¬ and The Awakening.Cho pinÃ¢â¬â¢s story Ã¢â¬Å"The StormÃ¢â¬ is, as the title suggest, about sexual tensions of a repressive waera.Ã It was considered scandalous for a female from the privileged class to even entertain the thought of sexual tension during the Victorian Era, and especially to write about it.Ã The storm deals with two people, Alcee and Calixta, who were in love during their youth.Ã They go on to marry others that society says are right for them.They feel trapped by the rules of society and still desire each other.Ã The reader is introduced to Calixta at their home, sewing and doing other household chores, Ã¢â¬Å"unaware that the storm is coming.Ã¢â¬ This suggests to Wilson that Ã¢â¬Å"her sexuality is repressed by the constraints of her marriage and societyÃ¢â¬â¢s view of women, represented in this passage by the housework.Ã¢â¬ Airing out on the porch are her husbandÃ¢â¬â¢s Sunday clothes, which Wilson says Ã¢â¬Å"allude to society in the form of the church.Ã¢â¬ Ã The story continues with other illustrations using the storm until, finally, after Alcee and CalixtaÃ¢â¬â¢s sexual encounter, the storm finally begins to pass and everything in the world seems renewed and fresh. (Wilson 2)In The Awakening the protagonist, Edna Pontellier, is a young woman married to a businessman, but she is dissatisfied with her marriage.Ã In her society this idea was considered unthinkable.Ã She wants to wants to retain her individuality, her artistry, and to be sexually fulfilled.Ã In her novel, she seeks an identity for women that is neither wife nor mother. To achieve this end, she incorporates progressive ideas of androgyny and female-female intimacy into her writing; yet ultimately the text, through characters who cannot escape essentialist and sentimental ideologies, demonstrates the failure of her attempt. (McDonald)Ã In fact, the pressures of society of that era leads to the suicide of the protagonist.Kate Chopin dared to write about to pics that were groundbreaking for women in the late eighteen hundreds and early nineteen hundreds.Ã During this time women werenÃ¢â¬â¢t even capable of having enough knowledge to vote.Ã If a woman chose any path in life that did not include marriage, then she was seen as a failure.Ã In her writing, Chopin was groundbreaking in the area of feminism.Ã The questions that are raised by the articles used for this essay, is where did she get the courage to tackle the topics that she did, and why didnÃ¢â¬â¢t more women join here in their craft?Works CitedFaust, Langdon Lynn. American Women Writers. New York: Inger. 1983.McDonald, Erin E.Ã Ã¢â¬Å"NECESSARILY VAGUEÃ¢â¬ : KATE CHOPIN'S GENDER-AWAKENING.24, May, 1999, http://www.womenwriters.net/domesticgoddess/macdonald.htmlWilson, Robert. Ã¢â¬Å"Feminine Sexuality and Passion: Kate ChopinÃ¢â¬â¢s Ã¢â¬ËThe Storm.Ã¢â¬â¢Ã¢â¬ The Universityof British Columbia, October 22, 1992. http://www.interchg.obc.ca/rw/eng304-1. htm.
Posted by j at 1:06 PM
Friday, August 16, 2019
Due Date: Week 13 Final Reflection: Final Reflection As another semester comes to an end, it is a good time to reflect on your experiences and your learning. To summarize your experiences in this course, we would like you to write up a 5-10 page paper about your experiences in this class. It should address three main areas: 1. Your newly acquired knowledge of practical nursing. Think back to when you started this course; think about what you knew about practical nursing. Describe what you learned and what you would still like to learn.This section should describe how your ideas about 1 or 2 topics changed as a result of taking this course. Were they topics you misunderstood previously that you feel you understand better now? Were they topics that you felt were not relevant to your life that you are glad you learned more about? How has learning about these topics affected your thinking about practical nursing or interprofessional practice in general? 2. Newly acquired knowledge about you as a learner. This section should describe your experiences as a student in this course. What did you do well as a student in this course and what did not go quite as well as you expected?What advice will you give yourself as you take on other courses? 136 George Brown College Practical Nursing COURSE NAME: Practical Nursing Clinical Applications I COURSE CODE: NURS 1029 3. Personal reflection. This section should address your personal experiences in the course. What did you learn about yourself as a person? If you could look at yourself through the eyes of your professor, what would you want your professor to know about your growth as a person, a student and a student practical nurse over the course of the semester? Describe one challenge you faced in this course and how you handled it (did you overcome it?How? If not, why not? ) Process: 1. Using 3 resources/ professional journals linked to practical nursing or interprofessional practice, you are to write a reflective essay on your role as a member of the interprofessional team, practical nursing, turning theory into practice. 2. The essayÃ¢â¬â¢s length is not to exceed a minimum five pages and maximum ten pages, presented professionally in 12 font Times New |Roman, double spacing using correct spelling and syntax. 3. A Reference Page must be included in your essay, using the APA referencing method. Grade: 20% *based on grading rubric
Posted by j at 4:47 PM
Thursday, August 15, 2019
Air-freight firm Transmile Group Berhad hit the business news headline for the wrong reason in 2007. The share price suffered turbulence when it was revealed that auditors of Deloitte & Touche were unable to substantiate the accounts of year 2006. The fraud was discovered after a special audit conducted by Moores Rowland Risk Management Sdn. Bhd. , stating that the company has been overstating its revenue between the periods of 2005-2007 to reduce the net loss shown in its financial statements and total overstatement being RM 530 million. Transmile had recorded revenues which were actually companies that were set up by its former CEO Gan Boon Aun. Share price plummeted from its RM14. 40 high to just RM0. 37 as of 2nd of September, wiping out RM 1. 2 billion gains of the last two years in its market capitalisation. The company is now classified as a PN-17 status company, given to companies that are under financial distress. The current board of directors has now filed a writ of summons and statement of claim in the Kuala Lumpur High Court against its former CEO. Next to the Transmile fiasco is the government funded regional industrial park called Port Klang Free Zone (PKFZ). Initially, the project was to be modelled after the successful Dubai-based Jebel Ali Free Zone (Jafza) which offered extensive manufacturing and distribution facilities. The scandal began when the project had cost overruns of up to RM3. 5 billion and the land where the PKFZ is built on was bought over from another private company owned by a politician at an exorbitant amount. Jafza was responsible to manage PKFZ pulled out, citing Ã¢â¬Å"strategic purposesÃ¢â¬ as a reason, but following after, a local daily newspaper soon uncovered that Jafza pulled out due to red tape, political interference and many other reasons. The Malaysian Government then engaged the services of PriceWaterhouseCoopers to conduct an independent audit on PKFZ and its findings led to the arrest of Datin Paduka O. C. Phang, former Port Klang Authority general manager and several other politicians by the Malaysian Anti-Corruption Commission. As seen in two cases above, corporate scandals have managed to delude its way around many watchful eyes, mainly due to existence of agency conflict whereby insufficient actions were taken to ensure transparent reporting. In TransmileÃ¢â¬â¢s scandal it is obvious that there is manipulation of related party transactions by former CEO Gan Boon Aun and clearly involved conflict of interest intended to be concealed by falsifying records. Related party transactions refer to the expropriation of the companyÃ¢â¬â¢s assets by controlling shareholders or insiders resulting in impact on corporate governance and minority shareholders, whereby the company receives less net benefit from a related party transaction than could have been obtained from a transaction with an unrelated similitude. On the other hand, PKFZ similarly involved related party transactions and asset shifting, leading to personal gains and political pressure. JafzaÃ¢â¬â¢s initial transactions and then pulling out was a series of actions evidently pertain the existence of motives against the interest of the company. The poor financial management by directors vitally contributed to the leeway for fraud, as management should strongly reinforce company regulations on reporting transparency. Distinctive lack of corporate governance resulted in these occurrence of fraud. Due to the absence of such, there are lack of rules and processes or laws by which the company should have abided as to assure veracious operation, regulation and control of business. Weak corporate governance allowed unmonitored transactions leading to personal gains at the expense of the companyÃ¢â¬â¢s interest, along with unenforced proper disclosure of conflict of interest. The absence of good corporate governance allows the tolerance of corporate abuses hence possibility of fraud to occur should be effaced by imposition of laws and regulations to enforce corporate governance.
Posted by j at 8:28 PM
Suicide and Healing: Aboriginals Overcoming the Hardships and Barriers Aboriginal peoples have had to endure many tragedies throughout history, which has affected them emotionally and mentally. It is no wonder that this group of people are amongst the highest suicide rates in Canada (Royal Commission on Aboriginal Peoples, 1995). This is a look at those tragedies and how it is tied in with suicide, also mechanisms used by Aboriginals to start the healing process. Definition of Suicide amongst Aboriginals Suicide and its roots in Aboriginal communities is said to be one of the many outcomes of colonialism and are matters of great concern.The impact of someone dying from suicide affects the family and the community. Many contributing factors of suicide and its attempts in both Aboriginal and non- Aboriginal are as followed: sexual abuse, family violence, solvent abuse, addictions, lack of proper leadership, deterioration of family structure, etc. Studies have shown that the rate of sui cide of all age groups amongst Aboriginals is 2 to 3 times higher than compared to the rate of non-Aboriginals. When it comes to the youth it is 5 to 6 times higher.This could be due to the fact that Aboriginal communities are so close knit that when one commits suicide it causes a ripple effect. That being said we must take into consideration that, Ã¢â¬Å"suicide is not just a problem in itself, but the symptom of deeper problemsÃ¢â¬ (Royal Commission on Aboriginal Peoples, 1995, p. 2). Residential Schools In the early 19th century the Canadian government took it upon themselves to educate and care for the Aboriginal peoples. They thought that the best way in doing so was to assimilate Aboriginals with Christian beliefs, the English language and Canadian customs.Their idea was that Aboriginals would take their adoptive lifestyle and teach it to their children, with the notion that the native traditions and practices would be diminished or completely abolished within a few genera tions. The Canadian government felt that children were easier to mold than an adult (N. A. , 2010). They wished to minimize the amount of contact a child had with his or her parents and elders, so Aboriginal children were forced to relocate off reserve to a boarding school. Here the children would learn how to survive in mainstream society, and forget who they were and what their culture had taught them.The schools were not geared toward academics, but sought to train them in manual labour and industrial work. These Aboriginal children were forced to live, work and learn in unsafe conditions; due to the fact that facilities were not up to par, and the cheapest of supplies were used to erect the buildings (Kirmayer et al. , 2007). The church officials used punishment to humiliate, undermine and cause pain to the children. For instance, upon arriving at the residential school the children were assigned numbers that would identify them and given severe haircuts; hair has tremendous sym bolism in many Aboriginal cultures.Many of the children were sexually abused, and in most cases it did not stay closeted in the residential schools, but made its way back to the communities where the victims would then become the perpetrators (Kirmayer et al. , 2007). Indian agents saw the Aboriginals extended family living as unfit and unnatural, and sought to shape them into a Ã¢â¬ËnormalÃ¢â¬â¢ nuclear family. Aboriginal children were taking from their homes and placed in residential schools, which were usually located a significant distance off reserve. This made it nearly impossible for the families to visit one another.The children were allowed to write letters in order to keep in contact with their family, but the letters were looked over by the school officials to ensure no complaints were being made about their harsh treatment. This form of assimilation had a harsh impact on aboriginal community, culture and society. It also took a toll on the parenting practices amongst many of the Aboriginal peoples (Kirmayer et al. , 2007). Impacts of Residential Schools When the law that allowed government officials to take Aboriginal children out of their communities passed, the effects were tragic.Many of the surviving adults are still tremendously traumatised, that they find being a good parent and community member troublesome (Alberta Health, 1995). The amount of abuse that Aboriginal children had to endure during those dark times has been connected to the current suffering of their communities. A lot have turned to alcohol and other substances to deal with their pain; this in turn causes dysfunctional family units and communities. Many of the former students cannot speak their languages and more or less feel too ashamed to teach it to their own children.This is because the staff took it upon themselves to punish ever child who acted or spoke like an Ã¢â¬ËIndianÃ¢â¬â¢. When the children returned home there was a communication failure with their elders, because they were too ashamed to speak in their language; reasons stated earlier on. Since they could not communicate to one another the opportunity to respect their elders and learn their language and culture diminished. The gap on communication also led to a rejection of their traditional values and beliefs, because the elders were the teachers of the community.While attending the school a significant amount of students were victims to sexual abuse at the hands of educators, fellow students and administrators. But, the abuse didnÃ¢â¬â¢t stop there the victimized students began internalizing, normalizing and even recreating the sexual abuse within their own communities. They themselves sought the power those of authority once had on them. This in turn added more dysfunction to the family ties with Aboriginal communities. The parents whose children were taken from them felt guilty, like the children blamed them for the reasons they were being taken, they no longer felt needed anym ore.Some may say this is the reason many turned to alcohol and drugs (Kirmayer et al. , 2007). Jealousy and greed were taught in the schools and missions. You fought for bread, you fought for clothes. There was no love involved. You were taken from your family and held in the missions for 10 months straight. The mothers and dads couldnÃ¢â¬â¢t exercise their love. Now there are lots of people, who donÃ¢â¬â¢t know how to raise kids, because this is what they went through, and thatÃ¢â¬â¢s what they pass on, because thatÃ¢â¬â¢s the only thing they know (Alberta Health, 1995, p. 9). The 60Ã¢â¬â¢s ScoopThe term Sixties scoop refers to the adoption of Metis and First Nations children that took place during the 1960Ã¢â¬â¢s. The name was derived due to the fact that during that decade the number of adoptions that took place in Canada was the highest in its history, in most cases children were literally scooped up from their families and community without the consent of their pare nts and fellow band members. During this time government officials and social works saw the Aboriginal peoples as unfit and could not adequately provide the children with what they needed.One of the reasons they thought this was because their houses were not similar to the Euro-Canadian houses for example; children ate wild meat and bannock and rather than having their cupboards stocked full of food, Aboriginals simply hunted and gathered what was needed. Many of the Aboriginals who were affected saw the removal of their children as a deliberate act of cultural genocide (Sinclair, 2011). About 70% of the children taken from their families were placed in non-Aboriginal homes, many of these homes denied them of their heritage and culture.A vast majority of the foster families told the children they were of a different race such as Italian or French, rather than telling them where they had originally come from. A lot of the children suspected they were of Aboriginal decent, but could n ot confirm it. This was due to the Government policy that birth records could not be issued unless both the child and parent had given their consent. Many of the children floated from foster family to foster family and never really experienced true stability.On numerous occasions Aboriginal children went from loving, caring and well intentioned Aboriginal families; to places of slave labour and physical, sexual and emotional abuse. For, abuse of any kind was not uncommon and usually covered up, to hide just how unjust the government was (Hanson, 2009). Impacts of The 60Ã¢â¬â¢s Scoop Many of the children experienced marginalization, identity confusion, attachment disorders, emotional emptiness, abuse, self-hatred, racism and even substance addictions. These experiences later affected their family units and communities, because they were taught that this was right.A study done in Prince Albert penitentiary found that 95% of incarcerated Aboriginals had been in foster care as a child . Also, a vast majority of surviving children are sexually exploited or live on the streets. This tragedy was yet another blow that language and culture amongst Aboriginals peoples had to endure (Kirmayer et al. , 2007). Linking Tragedy to Suicide As stated earlier both of these tragedies have led to further cases of physical and sexual abuse, but there are links between them and the high number of suicides in Aboriginal communities as well. Studies have found hat mental illness, family breakdown and child abuse are higher in those who have experienced these tragedies than those who havenÃ¢â¬â¢t. Some of these mental health problems have been diagnosed as residential school syndrome or RSS, some may say that the government spends too much time trying to diagnose them rather than trying to fix the problem. Aboriginal peoples not only suffered during these times, but the long lasting effects still reside with them today. So, Aboriginal peoples are still suffering. In fact, these neg ative consequences have a substantial impact on Aboriginal families and communities.Although many have not been able to cope with their pain, some have gone on to live healthy and successful lives. The many types of abuse these children faced have been very traumatic, and studies have shown that separation from families has the severest impact on oneÃ¢â¬â¢s mental health. Suicide itself is associated with emotional deprivation, separation of families and losses in early life. That being said, when the children were separated from their families and taken from what was familiar to them during both of these tragedies spoken of earlier, they became high risk (Kirmayer et al. 2007). There are 4 families of related factors of suicide within Aboriginal communities, they are: * Psycho-biological factors- which are the various mental disorders linked with suicide. * Life history or situational factors- which are the trauma one faces in early childhood, dysfunctional family, unable to rela te or trust both peers and members of authority, absence of spiritual and religious beliefs, imprisonment and substance abuse. * Socio-economic factors- unemployment, poverty, stability, prosperity and low class status. Culture stress- the loss of norms, values and beliefs there were originally to taught to one in their own culture (Royal Commission on Aboriginal Peoples, 1995). Aboriginal Healing Processes Every community and Aboriginal individuals are unique in their own way. But, the beliefs these communities and band members hold are quite similar. In these communities the care and love everyone has for one another is tremendous, they feel a sense of belonging within the larger universe. When looking at any issue within a community the Aboriginal peoples believe that ou canÃ¢â¬â¢t just look at one aspect of a person or community, but rather the total person, total community and total environment. In order for a person to be healthy they must take care of themselves as a Ã¢â¬Ë wholeÃ¢â¬â¢. For Aboriginal peoples this means that the mind, body, soul and emotional spirits must all work together in order for one to be healthy. They also believe in the circle of life, that in order for the human race to progress we must follow the values of balance and harmony.Traditional healing is very important in the Aboriginal culture, in fact many traditional healers are now working within hospitals all across Canada. But, there are many hardships facing these healers such as; finances, conflict with hospital staff and even Aboriginals who do not value this approach (Alberta Health, 1995). What happens in one stage of a personÃ¢â¬â¢s life is interconnected with every other aspect of his or her life. Although many of the children who survived these above tragedies do not remember what happened or do not wish to think about it, they must try to heal and explore in order to keep on surviving.As children, there are limited options, but as an adult we have choices to ov ercome these hardships, whether we choose to or not is totally up to oneself. In order to survive one must follow a positive path and take the following steps into consideration: * Acknowledge that they have been hurt * They must Ã¢â¬ËownÃ¢â¬â¢ these feelings of hurt and pain. * Explore and try to remember what happened to them. * Learn to share these feelings with people who care and are not judgemental. * Make choices that will help you live in a more positive lifestyle (Mussell et al. 1993). Some may say that the government succeeded in bringing down the Aboriginal peoples, but they are wrong to think that they will stay down. Many Aboriginal peoples have gone on to live happy healthy lives and will continue to teach their children these ways. But, in order for the people to survive we must help and try to live balanced lives free of racism and hate (Alberta Health, 1995). Healthy communities are our greatest resource. But there are barriers that prevent us from experiencing good health and they are often as a result of our own lifestyles.Most of us have the knowledge of how to enhance our own health but knowing does not always translate into doing. Enhancing our health may require lifestyle change and habit changes, and that is difficult. It is easier to do things that make us feel good if we have resources available and support from those around us and our community (Alberta Health, 1995, p. 68). References Royal Commission on Aboriginal Peoples. (1995). Choosing life: Special report on suicide among Aboriginal people. Ottawa, ON: Canada Communication Group.Alberta Health. (1995). Strengthening the circle: What Aboriginal Albertans say about their health. Edmonton, AB: Aboriginal Health Unit Alberta Health. Kirmayer, L. J. , Brass, G. M. , Holton, T. , Paul, K. , Simpson, C. , & Tait, C. (2007). Suicide among Aboriginal people in Canada. Ottawa, ON: Aboriginal Healing Foundation. Mussell, W. J. , Nicholls, W. M. , & Adler, M. T. (1993). Making meaning of mental health challenges in First Nations: A Freirean perspective. Chilliwack, B. C. : SalÃ¢â¬â¢IÃ¢â¬â¢Shan Institute Society.Sinclair, R. (2011). Origins Canada: Supporting those separated by adoption; The 60Ã¢â¬â¢s scoop. Retrieved from http://www. originscanada. org/the-stolen-generation/ N. A. (2008, May, 16). Residential schools: A history of residential schools in Canada. Retrieved from http://www. cbc. ca/news/canada/story/2008/05/16/f-faqs-residential-schools. html Hanson, E. (2009). Sixties Scoop: The sixties scoop & Aboriginal child welfare. Retrieved from http://indigenousfoundations. arts. ubc. ca/home/government-policy/sixties-scoop. html
Posted by j at 12:09 AM