Sunday, January 26, 2020

Types of Evidence in Criminal Investigation

Types of Evidence in Criminal Investigation Collecting the Evidence Collecting evidence from a crime scene is a crucial aspect of solving crimes. Before evidence can be seized, there must first be a court order approving the search of the crime scene and the seizure of the evidence found at the scene. Standard protocol for officers is for them to always use latex gloves, avoid plastic bags, double wrap small objects, package each object separately, and to collect as much evidence as possible. It is better to have too much evidence than to not have enough. There are countless amounts of evidence that can be found at a crime scene. Blood stains are one type of evidence that can be found at a crime scene. Blood that is still in the liquid form should be picked up on a gauze pad. Once the blood is dried thoroughly it should be refrigerated and sent to the Laboratory (Andrus et al., n.d., para. 1). If the blood stain is found dried on clothing, the officer should wrap the piece of clothing in clean paper and place it in a sealed and labeled container. An object with dried blood stains needs to be sent to the Laboratory if it is small enough. If the object is too large to send, then using a clean knife the stain needs to be scraped onto a clean piece of paper, which then can be folded and placed in an envelope (Andrus et al., n.d., para. 2). When collecting autopsy blood samples, the officer should request that the pathologist obtain the sample directly from the heart and place it in a yellow or purple stoppered vacutainer. If the victim is still alive but in serious need of a blood transfusion, then the pre-transf usion blood sample needs to be obtained promptly before the hospital discards it (Andrus et al., n.d., para. 4). It is important for the Laboratory to receive all blood samples within 48 hours or the samples may be useless. Another type of evidence that can be collected at a crime scene includes seminal stains. These are most commonly found on clothing, blankets, and sheets. Similar to liquid blood stains, seminal stains need to be air dried before being packaged and sent to the Laboratory (Andrus et al., n.d., para. 10). Victims in sex offense cases should always be examined by a physician. The physician uses a Sexual Assault Evidence Collection Kit to collect evidence directly from the victim. Hair samples can also be found at crime scenes. Collecting hair can be made easier by using tweezers. The collected hair should be placed in coin envelopes then folded and sealed in larger envelopes. If hair is found attached to an object, the officer should leave the hair intact and package the entire object (Andrus et al., n.d., para. 13). In an attempt to collect the ideal 50 to 100 head hairs or 30 to 60 pubic hairs wanted for rape cases, the victim or suspect should bend over a large sheet of clean paper and rub their hands through their hair (Andrus et al., n.d. para. 15). The loose hair will fall out on the paper and can then be collected. Collected fibers and threads are another type of evidence found at a crime scene. Such evidence is most commonly found caught in torn materials. Once collected, the officer should put the sample in a paper bindle that is then placed in a sealed and marked coin envelope. If the fibers are short or are few in number, the officer should send the entire area containing the fibers to the Laboratory (Andrus et al., n.d., para. 19). Any clothing from which the collected fibers or threads may have originated from must also be packaged and sent to the Laboratory. Glass is commonly found at crime scenes. Small glass fragments should be placed in paper bindles which should then be put in a marked and sealed coin envelope. Large glass fragments should be placed in boxes with cotton or tissue to prevent the fragments from breaking during shipment (Andrus et al., n.d., para. 23). If a small broken window is found, the officer should send the whole window to the Laboratory. If the window is large, the officer should send in individual samples from different areas of the window. However, the whole broken window may be necessary if the glass samples are large enough to match the broken edges (Andrus et al., n.d., para. 24). For auto glass and auto headlights, the officer should send any remaining broken pieces along with the new lens to the Laboratory. It is important that all glass found at the scene be recovered and sent to the Laboratory. Any objects that may have been contaminated with glass should be wrapped in paper and also sent to the Laborat ory for examination (Andrus et al., n.d., para. 26). Glass from a distance away may also need to be collected depending on the crime being investigated. The entire fire scene in arson cases should be examined in search for flammable fluids. Flammable fluids may have been placed in other locations around the scene so it is important to extend the search to areas around the scene where burning did not occur. Wood can be used to detect traces of the fluid it should be sent to the Laboratory for examination. Officers should pour a small amount of found volatile liquids into an airtight glass. Small objects containing the flammable fluid should be placed in small sealed metal cans. If the samples are too large for cans they should be placed in heat-sealed KAPAK plastic before being sent to the Laboratory (Andrus et al., n.d., para. 45). Examiners can still detect flammable fluids on burnt objects, so as long as the object is not charred they should be sent to the Laboratory. There are many pieces of firearms evidence that can be found at a crime scene. First thing to know is that the only time a loaded weapon can be submitted to the Laboratory is if it is hand delivered. All magazines should be removed from the weapon, but unfired cartridges may be left in the magazine (Andrus et al., n.d., para. 47). Officers need to record the serial number, make, model, and caliber of the weapon. The weapon should then be placed in a strong cardboard or wooden box and sent to the Laboratory (Andrus et al., n.d., para. 49). Bullets and cartridge cases should be wrapped in paper and sealed in pill boxes before being sent. Ammunition, powder, and gunshot residue need to be recovered quickly and gingerly to prevent contamination. Tool marks can also be evidence found at a crime scene. This type of evidence can either be impressions left by the tools on objects, or the physical tool itself. The recovered tools should be wrapped in paper and packaged before shipping to the Laboratory. Send in the whole object containing the tool marks if it is small enough. If it is not possible to send in the entire object, photographs and sketches of the area containing the mark need to be taken and sent to the Laboratory (Andrus et al., n.d., para. 53). Latent fingerprints are commonly found at crime scenes. Most fingerprints will be found on paper, glass, metal, or other smooth surfaced objects. When picking up the objects it is important for the officer to touch as little as possible and in areas least likely to contain prints so that they will be less likely to smear the prints. Large objects should be fastened down with string on wood or heavy cardboard (Andrus et al., n.d., para 53). Papers and documents need to be individually placed in a cellophane or manila envelope which needs to be placed in between two sheets of cardboard paper. It can then be placed in a box for mailing. The amount of evidence can either help win or lose a case. Every crime scene has evidence available for officers to collect. It is important for them to know what the standard protocol is for collecting evidence and how to properly collect it without contamination. References Andrus, R., Bailey, J., Sprague, T., Springer, F., Tulleners, F., Wiersema, S., et al. (n.d.). Crime Scene Investigator Network: Evidence Collection Guidelines. Retrieved January 15, 2014, from

Saturday, January 18, 2020

The effect of motivation on behavior

In everyday conversation, the question â€Å"What motivated you to do that?† is a way of asking, â€Å"What caused your behavior?   Why did you act that way?†Ã‚   To psychologists, a motivation is a need or desire that serves to energize behavior and to direct it toward a goal.   Psychologists consider motivation as a hypothetical concept.   Hence, they infer motivation from behaviors observe.But in a broader sense, motivation pertains to the purpose for responding.   The term comes from the Latin verb movere, which means, â€Å"to move,† and it is what causes movement (behavior) that concerns this paper.   The idea of movement is reflected in such commonsense ideas about motivation as something that gets us going, keep us moving, and helps us get jobs done.   Conversely, a person is not motivated when s/he cannot seem to get out of bed or off the sofa (Pintrich, 2001).Despite these commonly held ideas, definitions of motivation are numerous and varie d, and there is much disagreement over the precise nature of motivation.   Motivation has been conceived of in such varied terms as involving inner forces, enduring traits, behavioral responses tom stimuli, and sets of beliefs and affects (Schunk, D.H. 2003).Although motivation has many facets, psychologists have been especially concerned with those influences that energize and direct responses.   Simply stated, motivation determines how strong a behavior will be and the form it will take.   Moreover, much of what is known about motivational processes comes from research on how people respond to the difficulties, problems, failures, and setbacks encountered as individuals pursue goals over time.  Ã‚   Various theories contend that motivation underlies much human behavior (Weiner, 2005).Psychologists have different theoretical perspectives on motivation.   At present, there are four motivational strategies that are influential on how psychologists have understood  motivat ion, namely, flow theory, stress and coping theory, and intrinsic and extrinsic theory.Flow theoryCsikszentmihalyi (2005) studied individuals who engaged in intrinsically motivating activities and found that their experiences reflected complete involvement with the activities. This involvement, is known as the flow theory, and is defined as â€Å"the holistic sensation that people feel when they act with total involvement† (Csikszentmihalyi, 2005).According to Csikszentmihalyi, the flow is very much related to other human motives and has shown that the dimensions in this two-by-two classification are closed-versus open-system goals and intra- versus interindividual processes.   Closed goals are those that determined by genetics (needs, hunger, thirst, safety, optimal activation) or socialization; open goals develop as a result of experience and cannot be explained by pre-existing factors.   Interindividual processes are social in nature, whereas intraindividual processes refer to the person.   Flow is a personal process and reflects open systemic goals (Csikszentmihalyi & Rathunde, 2003).Moreover, individuals experiencing flow are so intensely involved with a task that they may lose awareness of time and space.   They also seek a flow experience for itself rather than for anticipated rewards.   Although flow can be experienced with any activity, it is more likely to occur with activities that allow for free expression and creativity such as games, play, and art.   De Charm’s origin state shares many elements with flow.   In extreme form, individuals forsake a traditional lifestyle and most contingent material rewards to engage in activities that provide flow (de Charms, 1996).There are a number of researches on the flow theory.   These researches have proven that despite being nebulous, the flow theory makes intuitive sense.   Csikszentmihalyi (2002)  describes a research study in which the Experience Sampling Method was emplo yed.   Adults carried beepers that sounded several times a week, at which time subjects rated themselves on two dependent variables:   Affect (comprising items â€Å"happy,† â€Å"cheerful,† â€Å"sociable†) and activation (comprising â€Å"active,† â€Å"alert,† â€Å"strong†).Subjects also judged their situation for challenges present and skills available.   The amount of time individuals judged themselves to be in flow (defined as challenges and skills present and equal to one another) was related positively to affect and activation (Csikszentmihalyi,2002).Mayers (reported in Csikszentmihalyi, 2002) had high school students’ rate school subjects and activities on challenge and skill.   Favorite activities fell into the flow are (challenge= skill): TV and music listening (low on each); friends (moderate); and arts, such as drama or ballet, and sports (high on each).   Skills were judged to exceed challenges in humanities a nd social sciences, resulting in boredom.   Challenges were rated as exceeding skills in mathematics and the sciences, resulting in anxiety.Other research compared the flow experiences of three groups of adolescents.   One group attended a select public school in Italy, a second group attended a typical suburban high school near Chicago, and a third group comprised talented math students from a top Chicago public school.   Students used the Experience sampling Method.   The Italian teens reported more flow experiences than U.S. teens, especially those talented in math.   Among the U.S. teens, those attending the typical school reported the most amounts of boredom (skills exceed challenges) and anxiety (challenges exceed skills).Interestingly, the talented group scored significantly lower than the other two samples in apathy, defined as skills and challenges in sync but below average (e.g., watching TV, listening to music).   In sum, experiences are comparable for average and above average students across cultures, whereas for talented U.S. teens, flow and apathy are rarer and boredom and anxiety are common (.Csikszentmihalyi, 1995)These researches implied that motivation affects the behavior of people.   The flow theory concluded that there is a state of equilibrium between the amount of challenge in activities and an individual’s capabilities.   People feel bored when their perceived skills exceed their opportunities for using them; they become anxious when they believe that challenges exceed capabilities.   Flow can vary intensity, with the critical variable being the ratio of challenge to skill.   The portrayed relations presumably hold for peak as well as everyday experiences (Csikszentmihalyi, 2003).Intrinsic and Extrinsic theory Deci & Ryan believes that intrinsic and extrinsic motivational forces govern behavior.   Extrinsic forces are preprogrammed biologically (e.g., food, sleep) or derive from the reward structure in whic h the individual is socialized (money, prestige).   Intrinsic forces grow out of the individual’s belief that a given outcome is worth striving for (Deci & Ryan, 2001).Deci and his colleagues (Rigby, Deci, Patrick, & Ryan, 2002) have recently conceptualized motivation along both intrinsic and extrinsic dimensions.   Intrinsic motivation concerns activities that are autotelic – engaged in for their own sake – which by definition are self-determined.   Extrinsic motivation involves a progression from behaviors that originally were extrinsically motivated but became internalized and now are self-determined.   The first level includes what Deci and his colleagues call external regulation.   In their research, they cited the example that students initially may not want to work on math but do to obtain teacher rewards and avoid punishment.There is very little self-determination in this situation.   At the next level of extrinsic motivation, students may en gage in a task (e.g., study for an exam).   Deci and his colleagues call this introjected regulation because the source of motivation is internal (feelings of â€Å"should,† â€Å"ought,† guilt) to the person but not self-determined since these feelings seem to be controlling the person.   The third level is called identified regulation and here individuals engage in the activity because it is personally important to them.The example they cited is that, a student may study hours for a test in order to get good grades to be accepted into college.   This behavior represents the student’s own goal, although the goal has more utility value (Wigfield & Eccles, 2002) than intrinsic value such as learning.   The final level of extrinsic is integrated regulation, whereby individuals can integrate various internal and external sources of information into their own self-schema and engage in behavior because of its importance to their sense of self.This final level is still instrumental, rather than autotelic as in intrinsic motivation, but integrated regulation does represent a form of self- determination and autonomy.   As such, both intrinsic motivation and integrated regulation will result in more cognitive engagement and learning than external or introjected regulation (Rigby et al., 2002).Deci and his colleagues` (Rigby et al., 2002) position is thought –provoking, has generated much research, and has important implications for the field.   Many points in the self-determination model are not clearly specified, but researchers increasingly are conducting studies that are adding to the understanding of how this theory explains how behavior changes through motivation.Stress and Coping Theory Richard Lazarus` stress and coping theory was developed from his several research on stress and its effects to humans, and it emphasizes psychological variables, namely, the cognitive processes of perception and thought.   Lazarus   (197 6, 1982, 1996) argues that it is neither the process (e.g. stressor) nor the response that best defines motivation.   Rather, it is the individual’s perception and appraisal of the situation that is a significant determinant of whether or not motivation will be experienced.   He cited that an individual may enjoy public speaking, whereas another individual finds it terrifying.   According to Lazarus, events in and of themselves do not produce motivation; it is the individual’s appraisal of the event that creates the motivation (Lazarus, 2001).Lazarus` theory of motivation states that when an individual is confronted with challenge, primary appraisal occurs.   During primary appraisal the individual attempts to determine how the event will affect her or his behavior.   Some events are perceived as positive and beneficial and thus are likely to create a motivation.   However, other events are viewed negatively and thus are perceived as harmful or threatening such as stress.   This appraisal of the event also generates different coping emotions such as fear, anger, or excitement (Lazarus, 1995).The next stage, secondary appraisal, involves determining whether one’s coping capacities are sufficient to meet the demands of a potentially harmful event.   An important part of this stage is a review and analysis of the response alternatives available to the individual.   This secondary appraisal can also lead to the acquisition of new coping responses (Lazarus, 2002).Although the two models of stress and coping theory of motivation are quite different, they are not necessarily antagonistic.   It is easy to see how a biological system to cope with stress would have obvious evolutionary advantages in enhancing survival.   Yet the nature of the human cerebral cortex allows for decisional process in dealing with stress, rather than autonomic biological reactions that are characteristic of lower organisms.   A synthesis of this t heory provides for an immediate, probably nonspecific, preparation for dealing with stressors; it is followed by an intelligent appraisal of the situation that may redirect the physiological reactions and institute motivation.  Ã‚   It is because humans have behavioral options, even though they may not always make intelligent decisions in dealing with stressors (Lazarus, 2001).In conclusion, motivation is an important quality that affects all behavior because the different theories presented have proven that it can influence both learning of new behaviors and performance of previously learned behaviors.   Behavior is related in a reciprocal fashion to motivation because how one behaves can be changed through one’s subsequent task motivation.ReferencesCsikszentmihalyi, M. (2002).   Emergent motivation and the evolution of the self.   In D.A.Kleiber & M.L. Maehr (Eds.), Advances in motivation and achievement (Vol. 4, pp. 93-98).   Greenwich, CT: JAI Press.Csikszentmih alyi, M. (2003). Intrinsic rewards and emergent motivation.   In M.R. Lepper &D. Greene (Eds.), The hidden costs of reward:   New perspectives on the psychology of  human motivation (pp. 205-206).   Hillsdale, NY:Erlbaum.Csikszentmihalyi, M., & Rathunde, K. (2003).   The measurement of flow in everyday life:   Toward a theory of emergent motivation.   In J.E. Jacobs 9Ed.), Nebraska symposium on  Ã‚  motivation 1992 (Vol. 40, pp. 57-97).   Lincoln: University of Nebraska Press.Csikszentmihalyi, M. (2005).   Toward a psychology of optimal experience.   In L. Wheeler (Ed.), Review of personality and social psychology   (Vol. 3, pp. 13-16).   Beverly Hills,  CA:Sage.Csikszentmihalyi, M. (2005).   Beyond boredom and anxiety.   San Francisco: Jossey-Bass.  de Charms, R. (1996).   Enhancing motivation.   New York: Irvington.   Deci, E.L. (1995). Intrinsic motivation.   New York: Plenum.  Deci, E.L. (2000). The psychology of self-determination.   Lexington, MA: D.C. Heath.  Deci, E.L., & Ryan, R.M. (2001).   Intrinsic motivation and self-determination in human  behavior.   New York: Plenum.Deci, E.L., & Ryan, R.M. (2002).   The support of autonomy and the control of behavior.   Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 53, 1024-1027.Deci, E.L., & Ryan, R.M. (2003). A motivational approach to self: Integration in personality.   In R.A. Dienstbier (Ed.) Nebraska symposium on motivation 1990(Vol. 38, pp.237-238.  Lincoln:University of Nebraska Press. Lazarus, R.S. (1996).   Psychological stress and the coping process.   New York: McGraw-Hill.  Ã‚  Lazarus, R.S. (1995).   Thoughts on the relation between emotion and cognition.   AmericanPsychologist, 37, 109-111.Lazarus, R.S. (2001).   Emotion and adaptation.   Oxford: Oxford University Press.Lazarus, R.S. (2002).   Little hassles can be hazardous to your health. Psychology Today,  pp.82-85.Pintrich, P.R. (2001).   Current issues and new directions in motivational theory and research.   Ã‚  Educational Psychologist, 26,199-201.Rigby et al., (2002).   Beyond the intrinsic –extrinsic dichotomy: Self-determination and  learning.   Motivation and Emotion, 16, 165-167.  Rigby, Deci, Patrick, & Ryan, (2002).   Beyond the intrinsic –extrinsic dichotomy: Self-determination and learning.   Motivation and Emotion, 16, 165-167.Schunk, D.H. (2003).   Goal difficulty and attainment information:   Effects on children’sAchievement behavior.   Human Learning, 2, 107-117.Weiner, B. (2005).   Human motivation.   New York: Springer-Verlag.Wigfield, A. & Eccles, J. (2002).   Expectancy-value theory of motivation: A developmental perspective.   Educational Psychology Review, 6, 49-52.

Friday, January 10, 2020

Consumers’ Preferences for Coca Cola and Pepsi Essay

Recommendation provided by Yayra Consulting firm for the Coca Cola Corporation and Pepsi Corporation is as follows:Based on the survey I found that a majority preferred Coca Cola over Pepsi. The consumers that preferred Coca Cola were influenced by the products taste. Both Coca Cola consumers as well as Pepsi consumers were loyal to their product of preference. In both cases I found consumers who have consumed Coca Cola and Pepsi for over 20 years. I recommend that Coca Cola continue to invest in advertisements due to the fact that from those who preferred Coca Cola were influenced by their advertisements and their use of celebrities. Consumers did say that if they did not have a choice and Pepsi was their only choice they would sometimes drink Pepsi. This leads me to recommend Coca Cola to increase their presence in areas where they currently are not. This will give the consumer an option and loyal consumers will stay with their preference. I would recommend that Coca Cola ensures t hat their product is available at the convenience of their consumers. My recommendation for Pepsi would be to target the younger community by incorporating cartoon characters on their products. This recommendation is due to the fact that from those surveyed I found that the younger generation liked the Pepsi sweeter taste more than what those surveyed described as crisp flavor for Coca Cola. Pepsi:Two out of the 5 people surveyed preferred Pepsi over Coca Cola. Out of the two surveyed for Pepsi both preferred Pepsi’s taste. Price did not influence choice. Out of the two Pepsi preferred consumers stated that they drank < 1 cup – 4 cups per day. Of the two surveyed both stated that they would sometimes chose Coca Cola if they had no other choice. Of the two surveyed the years consuming the product ranged from 9 – 20 + years. Only one of the two surveyed exclusively consumed Pepsi in their family. Both Pepsi consumers surveyed were attracted to Pepsi’s advertisements. APPENDIX BProduct Profitability analysis between Coca Cola and Pepsi:The product I have chosen is Coca Cola versus Pepsi for analysis. From research I found that Coca Cola net sales/revenues were $24,088,000. Cost of goods sold were $8,154,000 the difference between both sales/revenues and cost of goods sold resulted in a gross profit of $15,924,000 in 2006. The net income in 2006 was $5,080,000. For Pepsi I found that net revenue for 2006 were $35,137,000. Cost of goods sold was $15,762,000. The difference between the revenue and cost of goods sold in 2006 for Pepsi showed a net profit of $6,439,000. The net income in  2006 was $6,439,000. The importance of the financial data is to show areas in which the corporation is excelling and may want to continue to invest in. The financial data analysis in detail also reveals areas in which the corporation is losing money and from the findings the corporation can decide to change its approach in the particular area in order to prevent further financial losses. Also, the data helps management to identify these areas where there is loss and take action that leads to increased profits. Based on the net income of 2006 for Pepsi I would say one of the factors that contribute to the edge they have over Coca Cola is that Pepsi is more diversified in the products that they produce. Pepsi not only distributes the nonalcoholic beverages they also distribute a variety of sweet and salty snack products. APPENDIX CSWOT ANALYSIS – Strengths, Weaknesses, Opportunities and Threats:Strengths:Coca Cola:Coca Cola is a well established international nonalcoholic beverage corporation. They are well established in the market and are one of the largest nonalcoholic beverage companies in the world. Coca cola has over 400 brands from water to sports drinks. Coca Cola continues to invest in advertisements for their products, which contributes to their strong presence in the beverage market. They are addressing innovative ways to provide healthy drinks for consumers. Pepsi:Pepsi is also a well established international nonalcoholic beverage corporation. In addition to beverages Pepsi sells snacks such as the Frito Lay chips. They operate globally and have penetrated the market through advertisements, which influences increased sales. Pepsi using a distribution network to sell their products. They sell to distributors based on customer needs. Their established presence in the market contributes to their continued success and sets the stage for new successes with new products distributed by Pepsi. Weaknesses:Coca Cola:Coca Cola in 2006 some external factors caused a  reduction in income due to foreign exchange negatively impacted operation income in a decrease of 1% in European Union, Bottling investments, Brazil, and Latin America. Higher interest rates also affected Coca Colas profits. In 2006 they had a decrease of $42M compared to the prior year. Their main competitor which is Pepsi has a strong presence in not only the nonalcoholic beverages but also in salty snacks such as the Frito Lay chips corporation. Coca Cola products are strictly beverage drinks and I believe that this is a weakness for them. Pepsi:Similar to Coca Cola Pepsi operates on customer demand. If they were to market a new product that consumers don’t like Pepsi is at risk of losing sales and revenue. Other factors that can have a negative impact to Pepsi’s continued success are external factors like inflation, interest rates, and political issues. This corporation is heavily dependant on technology to run the day-to-day business. If anything were to go wrong with the technology they can be negatively impacted. Another issue that is of concern to the Pepsi organization is the fact that in recent years consumers have become more aware of health concerns. People are beginning to hold those responsible for distributing foods that are disease causing such as illnesses associated with obesity. To continue on the topic of health, Pepsi continues to distribute diet drinks containing aspartame which has been linked to cancer. APPENDIX C (Continued)Opportunities:Coca Cola:Coca Cola continues to invest on innovative products. This leads to having the ability to stay ahead of their competitors such as Pepsi. With Coca Cola being an international business the ability to be innovative provides further success in an ever changing world. In regards to being innovative, through innovation Coca Cola has the opportunity to put out healthy products into the market and address how their product affects the health of their consumers. Coca Cola to date has increased their diet products by through their partnership with Splenda, a diet substitute, by providing a variety of diet Coca Cola drinks. I also believe that Coca Cola should branch out like Pepsi into the snack industry. By doing so,they can have more of a competitive edge over Pepsi by providing snacks that are healthy in combination with innovative health drinks. Pepsi:Pepsi already participates in the distribution of snacks as well as their Pepsi drinks however, the snacks distributed are considered to be unhealthy. They should put more focus on providing healthier products for the consumer. This would provide more profitable opportunities for Pepsi. They would be reaching consumers who in today’s changing world are more health conscience than ever before. APPENDIX C (Continued)Threats:Coca Cola:The threats for Coca Cola are the constant increase new competitors entering the market. They have to constantly be aware of who their competitors are and what they are offering the market so that they can stay ahead of their competitors. Coca Cola dependence on technology is also a threat because in today’s advanced technological world there is always some kind of external threat including hackers, viruses that can corrupt critical financial information as well as product information. Another factor that can be a threat to Coca Cola is the interest rates increase. This can directly affect Coca Cola’s profits which can result in a loss. Pepsi:The threats for Pepsi are their contribution to the unhealthy snacks that they distribute to the consumer. I think that corporations have a social responsibility to provide healthy food products and not products that can cause ill health. Pepsi not only distributes nonalcoholic beverages but it also distributes snacks such as Lays chips, Doritos, Fritos to name a few. These snacks are considered unhealthy and I think that they should invest in innovative ways to come up with healthy snacks to the health conscience consumer. In recent years consumers have sued corporations for distributing food products that have lead to poor health. Therefore, with the threat of potential lawsuits Pepsi needs to address this issue and provide a product that consumers would consider to be healthy. CONCLUSION The fact remains that Coca Cola and Pepsi are each others main competitors. My recommendations for Coca Cola to invest in increasing their presence where they currently are not and continued investments in advertisements I believe will put them ahead of Pepsi. Also, Coca Cola  should branch out into distributing snacks but not just any snack but a healthy alternative snack for the increased awareness consumers have in today’s market. Pepsi consumers favored their sweet taste that was especially appealing to young consumers. My recommendation that they advertise with cartoon characters by targeting the youth I believe would lead to increased sales and increased profits for Pepsi. I also believe that Pepsi should invest in providing healthier drinks and snacks for their consumers. They already are in the market for the snacks if they began selling healthy versions of the existing snacks I believe that would also give them an edge over Coca Cola being that Coca Cola has yet to invest in the distribution of snacks. In conclusion, Coca Cola and Pepsi are successful companies that are well established in the market. This gives them an edge in the market that new competitors joining the market don’t have. That being said they still face the constant threat of new competitors and existing ones and must continue to invest in innovative ways that will keep them ahead of the competition. Also, companies have a social responsibility to provide healthy products for consumers especially in today’s world with consumers being more health conscience and demanding quality products from the food industry. Citation New York Stock Exchange:PEPSI

Thursday, January 2, 2020

Nursing As A Female Profession - 969 Words

Throughout history, nursing is one of the branches of healthcare field that has been viewed by many societies as a female profession. This notion has been influenced by the different cultures and the societal view of an ideal woman. Positive characteristics, such as patience, compassion, caring, and kindness that are required by nurses are considered to be â€Å"womanly.† Consequently, the society has appraised men to exhibit characteristic of bravery and protectiveness, which are required by warriors. Most common stereotypes among men in nursing are failed medical school applicant, gay or effeminate, misfit, and womanizer (Burton and Misener, 2007). Early nursing leader, such as Lavinia Dock and Florence Nightingale, also compounded prejudicial view of men in nursing. Nightingale s image of the nurse as subordinate, nurturing, domestic, humble, and self-sacrificing, as well as not too educated, became prevalent in society (Selanders Crane, 2012). The male nursing population in the United States (U.S) has increased from about 2.7 percent of in 1970 to 9.6 percent in 2011(U.S Census Bureau, 2013). Even though progress has made, it is extremely slow when compared to the advance of women in traditionally men dominated carriers. According to 2015 statistics from the US Bureau of Labor, 57.0% of pharmacists, 37.9% of physicians and physicians, and 25.9% of dentists are women. Ironically, Male nurses are only concentrated in technological, physical, and critical thinking aspectsShow MoreRelatedThe Barriers Of Professionalism : A Discussion Of The Contributing Factors1743 Words   |  7 PagesThere are many barriers in the nursing profession. The many factors that contribute to these limitations have been noticed for centuries, such as the educational standards which were set forth by Isabel Hampton Robb in 1893. Robb set the standards of nursing education and formalized a curriculum (Black, 2014). Today we face several challenge s and educational barriers. An important concept within the nursing profession that affects many is the issue of education. Nursing achievements and requirementsRead More Why Are There So Few Men In Nursing? Essays1307 Words   |  6 PagesAmong twenty leading female-dominated professions, registered nurses (RN’s) are the second most occupation that employed women in 2006 ¬. Similar to many traditionally female professions, the percentage of male in nursing is small. In fact, male nurses only comprised eight percent of RN’s in 2008. Although much effort has been made to recruit more men into nursing, many contributing factors have driven them away from this profession. Those factors include poor nursing image, negative public perceptionRead MoreWomen s Role As A Female Dominant Profession Essay1395 Words   |  6 PagesHistory shows us that nursing has not always been female dominant profession, and men have been a part of nursing for since acient times. A once male dominated profession has transitioned into men representing only a small percentage of the nursing population. The decl ine of men in nursing can contributed to factors such as gender discrimination, sterotypes, and the demasculination of the profession as a whole. In recent years there has been a push to revamp the image of nursing in order to recruitRead MoreGender, Gender And Gender Discrimination1303 Words   |  6 Pagestrait to provide for their families. It wasn’t until Florence Nightingale revolutionized the field of nursing by affirming the natural feminine qualities of care, nurture and gentle. The U.S. is experiencing a slow but steady increase of men within the nursing profession (Evans, 1997); however, integrating masculine and feminine roles still poses a big problem. Male nurses consist 9.6% of the nursing population, precipitating gender inequity (MacWilliams, Schmidt, Bleich, 2013; U.S. Census BureauRead MoreWhy Do Male Nursing Stereotypes Exist?1113 Words   |  5 PagesNursing was usually considered as a female type profession. However, throughout the recent years, it ha s become popular for men as well. In spite the fact that nursing a common career choice for men, there are still many stereotypes and misconceptions connected with being a male nurse (Jerpi, 2016). The goal of this essay is to find an answer and a solution to the question, â€Å"Why do male nursing stereotypes exist?† The word â€Å"nurse†, is derived from Latin origins and means to nourish and suckle (SaymanRead MoreNurses Should Not Be A Doctor Essay1373 Words   |  6 Pagesare many reasons why nurses are looked down on. The most prominent is gender. The nursing profession is primarily ruled by women and due to that â€Å"today’s view of nursing is of manual labor, not a skilled profession† (Sturtevant 32). It is seen as women’s work and in light of sexism, a woman s work is never important enough. Male nurses are ridiculed and the nursing profession devalued due to the fact that nursing is believed to be a woman s job. Nurses face a lot of adversity. One of themRead MoreNursing Now And The Civil War1516 Words   |  7 PagesNursing now and in the Civil War Where do you think the nursing profession came from? There were so many important voices and changes since the Civil War that had a major influence towards the nursing profession. Some things are the same but at the same time many things are different. For example, in the Civil War, if a soldier had a hurt leg or arm the doctors would just amputate it right away. Today doctors do many exams before they do something that serious. Since the Civil War, nursing hasRead MoreGender Differences Between Associate And Baccalaureate Degree Levels1639 Words   |  7 PagesWhile the nursing field continues to flourish in today’s job market,it is also experiencing a massive shortage. Despite this alarming fact, according to Buerhaus (2008): â€Å" Of the estimated 2.24 million RNs in the nursing workforce in 2006, 200,000 were men (8%)† (p. 2424). In order to alleviate the nursing shortage, nursing schools must allure men into the field by eliminating the feminization of the p rofession and appealing to a diverse demographic who choose to pursue a career in a female dominatedRead MoreLearning The History Of Nursing1505 Words   |  7 Pages Learning the history of nursing is vital in understanding nursing today. How Florence Nightingale changed the history of nursing? Why there is more female than male nurses? Why nurses were considered subordinate to physician? Why the contribution of physicians received more recognition than nurses? Why Filipino nurses is abundance in the United States hospitals? This paper would discuss the part of history of nursing that answered those above question. FLORENCE NIGHTINGALE Florence NightingaleRead MoreGovernments should encourage more men to become nurses600 Words   |  3 Pagessocieties evolved after the onset of agriculture revolution, the professions of males and females remained distinguished. Similarly the profession of nursing was overwhelmingly occupied by the women and the strength of males in it remained negligible throughout the course of history. But in the contemporary world, with the female activism, the distinction between male and female occupation has ceased to exist. That’s why this profession needs male professionals as well for its prosperity and development